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ISSUE11DECEMBER2014-JANUARY2015INTERNATIONALMAGAZINEJAMIEFOXXAndreThierryTHECALIFORNIANCREOLEZYDECOPRODIGYSidneyPoitierACTORFILMMAKERDIPLOMATCreoleinTexasTHEAFRO-SEMINOLESPARTIIHeatherHeadleyFROMTRINIDADWITHSOULAbramGannibalRUSSIANCREOLECONNECTIONPatrickVieiraUSINGFOOTBALLTOPROVIDEABRIGHTERFUTURELupitaNyongoTHESUPERSONINCRISEDonaldCravinsMAYOROFOPELOUSASLOUISIANAToniBraxtonTHEPREACHERSDAUGHTERFoxyBrownAPROFILEOFHERMUSICALCAREERRemoteIslandsDESTINATIONSFORTHEADVENTUROUSTRAVELLERSEPARATEDBYWATERBUTUNITEDBYCULTURE TEL9606620066FAX9606620077EMAILSALESATMOSPHERE-KANIFUSHI.COMYOURHASSLE-FREEHOLIDAYINPARADISE KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January20155kreolEditorialfromtheeditorEditorPublisherGeorginaDhillonArtDirectorRinaldMamachevWritingContributorsDustinCravinsLouisianaUSARolphEthienneFort-de-FranceMartiniqueHughBrennanDublinIrelandIanHancockTexasUSAChristophLandrySussexUKKimneetaLarizadehLondonUKPhotographyContributorSergeMarizySaint-DenisLaRunionKreolMagazineKreolMagazineWelcometothelastissueofKreolMagazinefor2014.Bythetimeyoureadthiseditionthefestiveseasonwillbeinfullswing.Weandyouourreadersshallbeplanningthecelebrations.2014hasbeenanexcitingandproductiveyearforusaswehavevisitednewplacesandexploredevenmorediverseCreoleculturesacrosstheglobe.Inthelastthreeissueswefeaturedsomeamazingpeoplefromentrepreneursmusiciansartiststopoliticiansandathletes.WereviewedfascinatingdestinationsdiscoveredbeautifulartandlookeddeeperintotheCreolecultureitsrootstraditionsandvalues.InthisissuewefeaturecelebritiesJamieFoxxp.8LupitaNyongoop.20SidneyPoitierp.26politicianMayorofOpelousasLouisianaDonaldCravinsp.2anddiplomatsDamePearletteLouisyGovernorGeneralofSt.Luciap.30H.E.FrancineBaronHighCommissionerforDominicaintheUKp.36andH.E.CarlosdosSantosHighCommissionerforMozambiqueintheUKp.40.Ourhistorysectionhastwofascinatingstories.OneofAbramGannibalasevenyearsoldboywhowaskidnappedandenslavedinAfricabutmadeittoapositionofageneralandnoblemaninImperialRussiap.44.KreolhasuncoveredthePolishsoldierswhofoughtinNapoleonsarmybutwhodefectedtohelpHaitianslavestoghtfortheirindependenceandaertheirvictorysettledinHaitip.48.Creolecultureisveryinclusivewhereeveryonecomestogetherbringingtheirownuniqueavourandenhancethewhole.ThisiswhatwetrytoachieveinKreolMagazine.YouwillndarticlesonMusiciansSportsmenArtFashionCultureNatureandSocialIssuesfrommanycornersofourplanet.OurTravelsectionisbiggerthaneveraswediscovernewplacesandinterestingdestinations.WehopethatourdeliciousrecipeswillgetyourChristmasSpiritupintheanticipationforthefestiveseason.NextyearweexpecttobringyouevenmoreofwhatsymbolisesthestrikingCreoleculturefromitsdiversityandtogethernesstocelebratingthespiritofausteritywithhappinessandsatisfaction.WishingyouallAVeryMerryChristmasandAProsperousandHappy2015.HappyreadingGeorginaDhillonEditorCoverPhotocut-outClemensNiehausFutureImageWENNAllmaterialpublishedremainsthecopyrightofRilaPublicationsLtd.Nopartofthismagazinemaybereproducedwithoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher.RilaPublicationsLtd.cannotacceptresponsibilityforunsolicitedmanuscriptsandphotographs.WhileeverycareistakenRilaPublicationsLtd.takesnoresponsibilityforomissionsorerrors.Wereservetherighttopublishandediteveryletter.Allrightsreserved.CopyrightRilaPublicationsLtd.2014ISSNPrint2050-2362ISSNOnline2050-2370ProudlypublishedbyCorrespondenceKreolInternationalMagazine73NewmanStreetLondonW1T3EJUKT4402075807759F4402075807166einfokreolmagazine.comwwww.kreolmagazine.com 6KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeaturecontentsISSUE11December2014-January20151211682026621204452Features8JamieFoxxProofthatCelebritiesarePeopleToo12DonaldCravinsOnceUponACreoleTheRemarkableStoryofDonaldCravinsSr.ofLouisiana20LupitaNyongoFromUnknowntoHouseholdNameTheSupersonicRise26SidneyPoitierActorFilmmakerDiplomat30PearletteLouisyTheDameontheHill36FrancineBaronHighCommissionerforDominicatotheUK40CarlosdosSantosTheCareerDiplomatThatNurturedForeignAairsinMozambiqueMostFamousSlavesinHistory44AbramPetrovichGannibalALifeChangedbyFortuneHistory48LaPologneTheStoryofHaitisPolishCommunityMusic52AndreThierryTheCalifornianCreoleZydecoProdigy56WarfeldLanaissancedumtaloya58FoxyBrownAProleofherMusicalCareer60HeatherHeadleyFromTrinidadwithSoul62ToniBraxtonThePreachersDaughter66CDReviewsCulture68BaronSamediALoaoftheDead70CreolesinTexasTheAfro-SeminolesPartIIFashion82GregoryColineBaptiste-MillsBuildingaBrandfromtheGroundUpArt88MoroBarukAnEgyptianManInuencingCreoleArtinHaitiTravel92NepalMoreThanJustEverest98LightsCameraActionZoomintoTrinidadandTobago104AtmosphereKanifushiRelaxintheNewAtmosphereoftheMaldives1103RemoteIslandDestinationsFortheAdventurousTravellerSocio-Political116GlobalSummitRescuingSmallIslandsDevelopingStatesSIDSliveonthefrontlinesofclimatechangeSport120PatrickVieiraUsingFootballtoProvideaBrighterFuture124RememberJoeGaetjensAmericasHaitianFirstWorldCupHeroSocial128HowtobeTheQueenofYourLife130TheEligibleyetStubbornlySingleBatchelor7ReasonsWhyHeWontCommitFood132HorsdoeuvreUnPetitRepasDejeunerLesRecettesdelaMaisonJean-BatisteAndrelaFleur133Recipes58 8KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeature8KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeature 9kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015JamieFoxxisaworldwidecelebrity.Hisactingandsingingcareersareknowntomanybutfewknowabouthischildhoodandthelingeringquestionsthatheisstillstrivingtoanswer.ProofthatCelebritiesarePeopleTooJamieFOXXAlltoooftenaveragecitizenslookatHollywoodcelebritiesaspeoplefromadifferentwalkoflife.ThosewhofillmovietheatresbuyCDsandtuneinonanightlybasistowatchtheirfavouriteshowstendtobelievethattheirbest-lovedcelebritiesliveacompletelydifferentlife.ItistruethatcelebritiesearnmillionsofdollarsandhavethewealthtoenjoydifferentthingsthanaverageJoes.Howeverthemoneythatcelebritiesearndoesnotchangewhotheyareasaperson.Actorssingersdirectorsandotherwealthyindividualsstillhavedarksecretsinlifeandissuesthatcausethemtolosesleepandquestionwhotheyareasaperson.JamieFoxxiswellknownintheUnitedStatesandaroundtheworldforhisactingsingingandsongwriting.Hehasappearedinanumberofhigh-profilefilmsinthe21stcenturybuttheshineofthoseaccomplishmentshasnotremovedtheissuesthathaunthimfromhischildhood.DontMesswithTexasTheworldtodayknowsthemanasJamieFoxxbuthewasbornasEricMarlonBishoponDecember131967.FoxxwasborninthesmalltownofTerrellTexasintheeasternportionofthestate.HeisthesonofLouiseAnnetteTalleyDixonandDarrellBishop.WhenhewasjustsevenmonthsoldhisparentsgavehimuptoLouiseAnnettesadoptiveparentsEstherMarieandMarkTalley.TheTalleyshadadoptedFoxxsmotherwhenshewasachildandwouldnowdedicatetheirtimetoraisinghiminTerrell.EstherMariewasadomesticworkerandnurseryoperatorwhileMarkwasemployedasayardworker.FoxxgrewupduringadifficulterainTexas.Thecitywasatthetimearaciallysegregatedarea.ThereweredistinctneighbourhoodscomposedofvariousdemographicsandFoxxgrewupintheTalleyhouseholdintheblackquarterofthetown.EstherMarieandMarkraisedFoxxwithastrictBaptistbackgroundattendingweeklyservicesatOPPOSITEPAGEJAMIEFOXXATTHEINDUCTIONCEREMONYFORSTARONTHEHOLLYWOODWALKOFFAMETHEKODAKTHEATRELOSANGELESCA.PHOTOEVERETTCOLLECTION 10KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureNewHopeBaptistChurchinTerrell.HisupbringinginTexaswouldbothdisplayhisimmensepotentialandleavehimwithquestionsthatstillhavenotbeenansweredtothisday.CapitalisingonTalentWhenFoxxattendedchurchwithhisadoptiveparentshequicklybecameinvolvedinmusicwiththechurch.Attheageoffivehebeganplayingthepiano.Bythetimehewasateenagerhewasapart-timepianistandchoirleaderattheBaptistchurch.Hismusicalskillswerefarfromtheonlytalentshedisplayed.Insecondgradehehadearnedareputationasajokester.Ratherthanthetypicaljokesterconstantlylookingfortroublehewasayoungstercapableoftellingajokethatleftlistenersinstitches.Hissecond-gradeteacherusedthatjoke-tellingabilityasarewardforhisclassmates.WhentheclassbehavedtheteacherwouldallowFoxxtotellthestudentsafewjokes.AshegrewupFoxxwentontoattendTerrellHighSchoolwherehisathleticabilitiescametothefore.Inadditiontomanagingtopgradesheplayedfortheschoolsbasketballandfootballteams.Hewasthestartingquarterbackfortheteambecomingthefirstplayerintheschoolshistorytopassformorethan1000yards.LikemanyyoungTexasfootballplayershedreamedofplayingfortheDallasCowboyssomeday.AfterhighschoolheattendedtheUnitedStatesInternationalUniversityonascholarship.Hestudiedclassicalmusicandcompositionwhileinschool.Asastudenttherehenurturedhisnaturalsingingabilityandloveforcomposingmusicalscores.HisroadtoHollywoodstartedunknowntomanyinacomedyclubin1989.Onthedareofagirlfriendhesteppeduptoanopenmicnighttotellhisjokes.NoticingthatfemalecomediansreceivedfirstcallstoperformhelistedhisnameasJamieFoxx.HechoseJamiebecausehethoughtitwasambiguousenoughtoavoidbiasandchoseFoxxasatributetothefamouscomedianReddFoxx.HiscomedicabilityhelpedopendoorsinHollywood.HiscareerstartedwithvariousrecurringrolesonInLivingColorfrom1991to1994.HewentontoplaytheroleofJamieKingthemaincharacterinall100episodesofTheJamieFoxxShow1996-2001.FROMTOPLEFTTORIGHTMATTHEWTOLMACHMARCWEBBEMMASTONEANDREWGARFIELDDANEDEHAANANDJAMIEFOXXATTHEAMAZINGSPIDERMAN2PREMIEREINBERLINGERMANY.PHOTOLACAMERACHIARADONJOHNSONJAMIEFOXXQUENTINTARANTINOANDLIANNESPIDERBABYARRIVEATTHE85THACADEMYAWARDSOSCARPRESENTATIONSATTHEDOLBYTHEATERLOSANGELESCA.PHOTOHELGAESTEBJAMIEFOXXJEREMYPIVENJADEPINKETTSMITHANDWILLSMITHATTHEWORLDPREMIEREOFTHEKINGDOMMANNVILLAGEWESTWOODWESTWOODCA.PHOTOSBUKELYJAMIEFOXXANDROBERTDOWNEYJRATTHESOLOISTPREMIEREPARAMOUNTTHEATERLOSANGELESCA.PHOTOEVERETTCOLLECTION 11kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015FeatureFilmsFoxxmadehisfeaturefilmdebutin1992inthefilmToysbutitwasnotuntilhisleadingrolein1999inthefilmAnyGivenSundaythathegainedinternationalnotoriety.Followinghisappearanceinthatfilmhebeganlandinglargerrolesinavarietyofdifferentfilms.HismostsuccessfulroletodaycameintheRayCharlesbiopicentitledRay.PlayingtheroleofCharlesFoxxsangmanyofthesongshimself.HewonanAcademyAwardforBestActorGoldenGlobeAwardforBestActorinaLeadingRoleandScreenActorsGuildAwardforOutstandingPerformancebyaMaleActorinaLeadingRoleforhisportrayalofCharles.UnansweredQuestionsFoxxhasasmilethatisinfectiousandaworkratethatisrespectedbyallinHollywood.Hiscontributionstoactingsingingandcomedyareunquestionable.Howeverthedepartureofhisparentsfromhislifeatsuchayoungageleavesmanyunansweredquestions.Foxxhasadmittedrecentlyinnumerousinterviewsthathewonderswhyhisparentslefthim.AstheactorputithimselfImagooddude.Iwasnotthekidgettingintrouble.Iwasquarterbackonthehighschoolfootballteam.YetheneversawhisparentsaftertheyleftdespitethefactthathisfatherinparticularhadremainedinTerrelllivinginahomejust28milesaway.Inearly2014hebeganaquesttoreconcilewithhisbirthparentsandhopefullyunderstandmoreabouthimselfintheprocess.Hiseffortstomakeamendswithhisparentsaresucceedingwithhismotheratleast.LouisemovedintoFoxxshomerecentlygivingmother-sonduotheopportunitytoreconnectwitheachother.Foxxhassaidthathavinghismotherlivewithhimisaneye-openingexperience.Spendingmoretimearoundherwatchinghermovementsandbehaviourshelpshimbetterunderstandhisowncharacterandseefromwheretheyareinherited.Unfortunatelythequesttoreconcilewithhisfatherremainsaworkinprogress.HisfatherchangedhisnametoShahidAbdulaafterconvertingtoIslammanyyearsagoandwascompletelyoutoftouchwithFoxxslifegrowingup.HisattemptstoreconcilewithhisparentsshowthatbehindeveryHollywoodcelebritythereisapersonalsidethatfewknowabout.InFoxxscasetherearepersonalissuesthatmanyinsocietyarealltoofamiliarwiththemselves.FROMTOPLEFTTORIGHTJAMIEFOXXANDCOLINFARRELLATMIAMIVICEPREMIEREMANNSVILLAGETHEATERWESTWOODLOSANGELESCA.PHOTOEVERETTCOLLECTION.JAMIEFOXXWITHREESEWITHERSPOONINTHEPRESSROOMFORTHEOSCARS78THANNUALACADEMYAWARDSTHEKODAKTHEATERLOSANGELESCA.PHOTOEVERETTCOLLECTION 12KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureHissmileisasinfectiousashiswitisquick.Hisopinionsarebothdirectandunapologetic.AmanofbroadtalentsandunusualexperiencetosaytheleastheiscurrentlyMayorDonaldCravinsoftheCreolecityofOpelousasLouisiana.WhoisheandwhatdoyouknowabouthimWhoreallyisDonaldCravinsandwhyishisstoryamemorableonetodayOnceUponACreoleTheRemarkableStoryofDonaldCravinsSr.ofLouisianaJohnlaFleurIIDonaldCRAVINS 13KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureAftertheAmericanCivilWarmanyfamiliesofthesefreepeopleofcolourorCreoleswhohadfledtoTexasandVeracruzMexicoinfearandhopelessnessduringtheterrorofReconstructionhadmostlymetnewdisappointmentstheretoo.EventuallywiththetriumphofCivilRightsmanyweretoreturntoSt.LandryParishwhereanewenforceddemocracyofCivilLibertieswasincreasinglyguaranteed.ThisiswhereDonaldCravinsthechildandtheadultwastogrowupponderandmeasurehislimitationswhileplanninghisaspirations.Itisalsothesociologicalsoiloutofwhichgrewhisdrivetoriseaboveitallbymeansofeducationandagenuineworkethicinspiredbyhisownfatherandmotherssacrificespersonalintegrityandyeshumiliation.OneisimmediatelystruckduringtheinterviewbyMayorDonaldCravinsverycandidloquaciousandequallywelcomingnature.HisfaithfulpartnerandwifePatsitsquietlyandloyallynexttohimasaQueenwouldherroyalconsort.MayorCravinsisindeedaCreolepatriarchwhoquitegood-naturedlylaughsathisownchildrenscharacterisationofhimasanoccasionalgrumpyoldbastard-whenhechallengestheirviewswithcounterarguments.Asheponderouslyopensupagainconfrontingbothhisownfamiliarbutunresolvableemotionsyetclearlyuntarnishedbyanycorrosivehatredinrelatinghismemoriesofhisfathersmostpainfulexperienceswhilegrowingupinpost-ReconstructionandtheAmericanCivilRights-eraLouisiana.Thereaderiswarnedinadvancethatsomeofthesereflectionsarequitepainfulbutareessentialincommunicatingthepsychologicalsociologicalandpoliticalclimateofthattime.Itwasatimeduringwhichathenyoungdescendantoffreepeopleofcolour-unCreoledecouleurDonaldCravinswastoevolveandemergeasaremarkableman.NowofficiallyaseniorcitizenandperfectlyseasonedbylifesexperiencesandthesweetnessthatworkeducationandsuccessbestowupontheindustriousMayorCravinsremainsiconic.Heisanunapologeticbluntlyoutspokenbutdignifiedhumorousandhighlyrespectedlivingleader.Inspiteofexperiencingandwitnessingincredibleinjusticesheremainshappytohavewitnessedthisperiodevenashehimselftranscendedandsurvivedit.Bornin1948DonaldCravinsSr.wasneithertheeldestnortheyoungestoftheninechildrenofArmasCravinsandEdmoniaGuillory.HisABOVETHEENTIRECRAVINSFAMILYATTHE40THWEDDINGANNIVERSARYOFDONALDANDPAT. 14KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeaturemotherwasadirectdescendantofthefamousinter-racialcoupleGregoireGuilloryasonofanAlabamaCreole-metiscoureurdesboisandhisbelovedwifepartnerMargueriteofLouisianajurisprudencefame.ArmasMayorCravinsfatherwasraisedbyafamilyofapparentGermanoriginrecallsDonald.Thishededucedfromthefamilyssurname.MayorCravinsfamilywasnotasharecropperfamily.Theyhadtheirownfarmlandswhichremainundersuccessfulcultivationtoday.LiketheirneighbourswithoutregardforthecolourlinetheCravinswereopen-heartedandgenerousinsupplyingorsharingwhateverwasnecessarytooffsetanydeficienciesoflife.MaterialsymbolsofwealthMr.CravinsinformsuswerenotcommontoanyoneinthosedaysinruralSt.LandryParishinBoisMallet.RegardinghisfamilyslifestylethenandnowMayorCravinshasthistosayImeanwecookandwecookandwecookandthencookandthenwedrinkalittlebitbutImeanitsjustadaythatwejustinvitepeople.Ahhhbackwhenourparentswerelivingtheywerehereandtheyjustcomeandweinviteeverybodyitdoesntmatteriftheyhavecompanyattheirhouseandthatsjustkindathewayweliketodothings.Unknowntohimselfthissameopen-heartedhospitalitytofamilyandanyoneelsewhohappensuponsuchLouisianaCreolefamilygatheringsisatraitandtraditionalsocommonamongtheSeychellesCreolesoftheIndianOceanafactobservedbyEditorofKreolInternationalMagazineMs.GeorginaDhillon.GeorginaconductedtheinitialfieldinterviewwithMayorCravinsandhistalentedwifetheatreaficionadoMs.Pat.NeedlesstosaytoanyonefamiliarwithLouisianasCreoleandCajuncultureMayorCravinswordsandcustomscomeasnogreatsurpriseItiswithwordswhichconveyanabidingreverenceanddeeploveforhisfatherwhichMayorCravinsofferedthefollowingconcerninghisparentshisunassumingrolemodels.Mydadwasafarmerandaconstructionworker.HewasmybestfriendhewasaguythatIlovedwithallofmyheartandhewasmyrolemodelandformanymentheycantbragabouttheirdads.Hepausespensivelyandcontinuesemotionally...mymotherwasawonderfulsharpwomanandIlovedherdearlyandshewasarockbutmydad-andwewereninechildren-hespoiledmelikehellhespoiledthehelloutofme.Imeanhewasmyguyandhewasadisciplinarian...buthedidnthavetodisciplinemetoomuchandonetimeIheardhimtellaguytelloneofhisfriends-Iwouldalwaysfollowhimaround-andhesaid...ifyouspoilthemtheyrealwaysgoingtowanttopleaseyou.AndofcoursehavingbeenbornintoaworldrepletewithvirtuallyunlimitedchoicesopportunitiesandprivilegesthemayorsownchildrenasdoanyfamilymembersclosetogreatpeopleandpersonalitiesmaysometimestakeforgrantedthattheworldwhichtheyenjoywasalsoforgedthroughthelegislativecontributionsoftheirownfatherasaformerLouisianaStateSenator.MayorCravinshastwofamoussonsandonedaughter.DonaldCravinsJr.atrainedlawyerpoliticalleaderandcurrentlyChiefofStaffforU.S.DemocraticSenatorMaryLandrieuofNewOrleansandyoungestsonshootingstarZydecomusician-chanteurDustinCravins.TheyalsohaveabelovedandequallyaccomplisheddaughterDenniCravinswhohascarvedherownsuccessfulpathintheworldofpublicrelationsandcommunications.PatandDonaldCravinsarealsoproudgrandparentswhonurtureandlovetheirgrandchildren.TheyareMs.Patsself-testifiedgreatestaccomplishments-alongwiththeirchildrentooofcourseRegardinghispersonalworkethichisrecollectionrevealsbothhisempathyandcompassionforhisfather.Howevertheyalso...mymotherwasawonderfulsharpwomanandIlovedherdearlyandshewasarockbutmydad-andwewereninechildren-hespoiledmelikehell 15kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015revealthegruellingclimateofdiscriminationaswellashisandoursharedunfathomableemotionsandinabilitytocomprehendsuchirrationalandinhumaneattitudesofthetimes.InhisownwordsIwasincollege4yearsandIstayedattheuniversitybutIcamehomeeveryweekendtohelphiminthefarm.WhenIreallyrealisedwhatmydadhadgonethroughinlifewaswhenIgraduatedfromhighschoolandIwenttoworkforhimintheplantsatthechemicalplants....discriminationwasrampantandIcouldntevenenvisionwhathehadgonethrough15-20yearsbeforemetobeabletoputupwiththatbullImeaneventhenIcouldntfigureitoutBecauseevenbackthentheyspoketoblackmenliketheywerechildrenandIwillneverforgetthefirstjobIwenton.Therewassomeelderlyguywhowasridinginatruckwithusandthiswhitesuperintendantgotoutofhistruck-wecouldntrideinthefront-andhecalledLeroyandsaidGetyourassoutofthetruckandgoandputupthegarbageIsaidhowdemeaningcanthatbeNeverthelessIlearntsomethingjust3or4yearsagoaboutmyfatherthatreallybroughtmetotears.Whatmadehimretirewasthathegotintoanaccidentataplant.AguycamebymyofficetotellmeaboutitbecauseashesaidIdidntreallywantyoutoknowthat...theybrokehisleg.Hewasprobablyasixtytoseventyyearoldman.Therewasambulanceonthejobthattheycalledbuttheywouldntallowhimtorideintheambulancebecausetheydidntletblackfolksrideintheambulanceandtheyhadtoloadhiminthebackofatrucktotakehimtothehospital.HesaidthatitstartedrainingandhesaidthemanwhohadinformedhimofhisfathersaccidentIcoveredyourfatherwithmyjacket...andItellyouthatreallydevastatedmetohearthat.Itonlyreinforcedwithmehowmuchofamanhereallywasandheneversaidthat.Imeanhegrewup...henevertalkedabouthisdadandIknowyouturningtohiswifesaidsomethingearlieraboutnottalkingaboutdadsdad.HeneverspokeabouthisfatherandIdontknowwhathappenedandhewasraisedbyafamilyofGermandescent.Iknowbecausetheirnameswere...andtheywerereallyreallygoodtohimandtheyABOVEPATANDDONALDATHOMEARAREMOMENTOFRELAXATION 16KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeaturetreatedhimnicely.Imeantheywerefriendsforlifeanditwasadifferentkindofrelationship.Hewasa6yearoldkidneverwenttoschool.Idontthinkheeverwenttoschool-smartman-anduhtheytookhiminandprettymuchraisedhim.Butofcoursehismotherwaslivingbecauseshelivedwithusinlateryearsafterhegotmarriedandwetookcareofheruntilshedied.Imeanshewasagrandmothershesmokedapipebutheneverspokeabouthislife.Heneverwouldandheneverdid.HewasthekindofguyhewouldnevertellyouwhattodohecalledmeTolley.HewouldsayIfIwasyou....ifIeverwantedtoaskhimsomethingandIwouldsayWhatdoyouthinkWellifIwasyou....-whichmeantthatswhatIwoulddoWhenaskedwhatmadehimrunfortheofficeandwhatwashisfathersreactionDonaldrepliedIneverforgotwhatmyfathertoldmewhenIdecidedtorunforofficeandmymothersimplysaidOhnoyoushouldntdothatbecauseofwhathadhappenedtoherbrotherwhohadrunforoffice.Thatwasinthe1960sandhehadalmostwontheelectionandthenhediedrightafterWhenItoldherIwantedtorunforStateSenateshesaidIdontbelieveyoushoulddothat.ButIknewIwasgoingtodothatanywayandthenItoldmydadhesaidIfIwasyouIdrunbutdonttellyourmotherItoldyouthatSofinallyshesaidWellitsalrightifyouwanttorunbutmakesureyougetyourselfaphysicalAndIsaidOkayImgonnagodothatSoIwentandgotaphysicalandthenIwentbacktoherandsaidDoctorsaysImfine.ShesmiledandsaidWellIknewyouwouldsaythat.Anywaytheybecamemybigcheerleaderssotherestiskindahistory.ButIreallyhadanappreciationofwhatshehadtogothroughraisingninechildrenintheJimCrowaftermathtimesofhistory.WhenaskedabouthisgreatestachievementduringtheserviceasSenatormayorCravinspausedforasecondandthenrepliedMygreatestachievementletmetellyoumaynotbesignificanttoanybodyelsebutitissignificanttomeintermsofmycareerhelpingpeopleintheareatogetjobswassecondary.TherewasaprisoncalledTallulahprisonanditwasayouthprisonforchildren-wheretheybrutalisedthekids...IvisitedthatprisonforsomeyearsandIfoughtformanyyearstoclosethatprisonbecausewhattheydidtoourchildren.TheyrapedthemtheybeatthemtheyputthemtogethersotheycouldbeatthemandeveryyearIwouldintroduceabilltocloseitandeveryyearthestateofLouisianawouldputupthefightthatitwasaneconomicdevelopmentinitiativeThedaywhenthelivesofchildrenandpeoplebecomeaneconomicdevelopmentinitiativeandhavesufferedforitisadaythatIdontthinkweneedinoursociety.IkeptdoingitandkeptdoingituntileventuallyweclosedthedamnthingButnotonlydidweclosetheprisonweusedourclouttotravelandseewhatotherstatesweredoingandtoseehowtheyweretreatingtheirjuvenilesandwereducedthenumberofincarceratedjuvenilesfrom1700to400becauseofthelegislationthatwewereabletoputtogether.IttookalotofworkalotofeffortandImtalkingaboutyearsofwork.AndIamjusttalkingaboutfindingacommongroundforusalltoagreethatwecouldgiveourchildrenachance.DiditdoanygoodIdontknow.HoweverIknowIfeelgoodaboutitbecauseIthinkthatsomekidsmightbedoingbetter.Becausewesaidthereisanalternativetoincarcerationweregoingtouseatherapeuticmodel.Wecanexaminealltheissuesandaddressalltheissuesthatittookforyoutogetthereinanefforttomakeyouintoabetterperson.ThatstheonethingIthinkisimportant.NowalltheotherstuffNowIdidsomenicethingsthatIreallyreallyenjoy.Andoneoftheotherthingsisthatweusedtogivemedicinetopeoplethatcouldntbuyit.Weactuallyworkedadealwiththepharmaceuticalcompanies.WefoundoutthattheyweregivingbillionsmillionsandbillionsofdollarsofmedicineIknewIwasgoingtodothatanywayrunforStateSenateandthenItoldmydadhesaidIfIwasyouIdrunbutdonttellyourmotherItoldyouthat 17kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015awaybecausetheydoitfortrialsandallthatotherstuffforpromotionsbecausetheymakesomuchmoneyandwefoundawaytomanoeuvreandgetpeopletheirmedicine.OnedayIwasinagrocerystoreandthislittleoldmanandthislittleoldladywereshoppingtobuygroceriesandtheywalkeduptomeandsaidSenatorCravinswejustwanttotellyouhowmuchweappreciatewhatyoudid.AndIsaidWhatdidIdoandtheysaidYougotourmedicineTheywerepayingabout500amonthforitand...IstartedcryingwhenIleft.Isaidtomyselfhaditnotbeenforthefactthatwegottheirmedicinetheywouldntbebuyinggroceries.Thatswhatmakesmefeelgood.IrememberthefamousandcontroversialGovernorofLouisianaEdwinEdwardswhileattendingarecentlife-timeachievementhonorariuminLafayettewhichpaidtributetomeforthemanyyearsofhonourableserviceandhedescribedmeas...gentlemanly.TheformerGovernoralsoadded...evenwhenhecouldntgeteverythinghewanted...Isupposethattellsyoualotaboutmyapproachtopeopleandpolitics.OnthequestionwhatishappeningintheAfrican-AmericancommunitytodayMayorCravinsrepliedTheAfrican-AmericancommunityinAmericaisatravestyandtoseeallofthosethingstranspireistolookbackandsayhavewereallymadeanyprogressandIwouldtellyoutonightthattheanswerisprobablyanunequivocalNO.WevedonenothingbecauseeventhoughyouhaveanAfrican-Americanpresidentlookatwhatshappeningintheblackcommunity.Tonightyouaregoingtohavemurderrunningrampantandviolenceisgoingtorunrampant-nomatterifitsinOpelousasorChicago.Itdoesntmatter.OrNewYorkSohavewereallymadeanyprogressIdontthinkso.Weareacommunityindeclineandwecanblameitonanyonewewant.Butattheendofthedayweneedtotakearealcloselookatourselves.DoyouthinkthisisgoingtochangeOhhhIthinkitsgoingtochangeImnotsooptimisticthatitisgoingtochangeinmylifetimebecauseifyoulookatwhathashappenedinourcommunityoverthelast20years.Imean25yearsagowewerestillaprettysolidcommunity.ButnowwhatwevedoneistakenthepovertyandsomeofABOVEDONALDCRAVINSWITHHISSONDUSTINCENTREANDBROTHERCHARLESRIGHTHOSTINGTHECRAVINSBROTHERSZYDECOINFOSHOWARADIOPROGRAMONKFXZZ105.9FMCARENCROLASUNDAYS9AM-NOON 18KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeaturewhichisselfimposedandwemakeitsynonymouswithcrimeWellinourgenerationifwehadtakenthatviewwedallbeinthepenitentiaryWewouldhavealldiedinthepenbecausewewereallpoorMydadmymotherneverwokeupinthemorningandsaidOhwepoorletsgorobthestoreOhyoupoorletsgoandhijacksomebodyNoWenowusepovertyasanexcuseforcrime.AndyouvehadsuchabreakdowninthecommunitythatIdontknowhowyourecreatethat.HowdoyourecreatethattrainpeopletoberesponsibleHowdoyougobackandre-trainpeopletobeconscientioushowdoyougobacktohavepeoplebecomejustItsacultureItsacultureyeahofcorruption.AndIcallitacultureofcorruption-acultureofdespair-IguesswouldbeabettertermandhowdoyouchangethatSoyouhaveablackpresident-wooptidoIshesupposedtojustwaveamagicwand-Idontthinkso.AttheendoftheinterviewweaskedwheredoesMayorCravinsseehimselfinafewyearsfromnow.HisswiftreplywasOhIseemyselfretiredkickedbackandthehellwiththat-Wellitwillnothappen------------------ThelifeofDonaldCravinsSr.remainsbothaninspirationandattestationtothehonourofhisparentshispeople-lesCreolesdecouleurs-theirvaluesfaithandworkethic.Hislifeandworkareatestimonyalsotohisloveofdemocracyandhertremendouspower.TothoseofuswhoareLouisianaCreolesofgenuinefaithhislifealsoprovidesaglimpseofGodandHisawesomeprovidenceinthelivesofthosewhoadheretointegrity.BytodayslogicitisaparadoxthattheunjustworldofJimCrowanditsReconstruction-eradestructivenessandlegally-imposedsufferingshouldhaveproducedsomanysuccessfullaw-abidingandprincipledmenandwomenofthecalibreofDonaldCravinsSracrosstheAmericanSouth.ForDonaldCravinsthesumofallofhisexperiencesgoodandbadresultedinanambitiousbutmostadmirablechoiceagainstsomanyoddstobringAmericasnewdemocraticidealsandopportunitieshome.HebroughtthemtoOpelousastohisownfamilytohislocalcommunitytheelderlyandcertainlytothehundredsofunknownyouthwhoseliveshavebeenforeverchangedbyhislegislativeworkandlegacy.OneofthegreatestgiftsMayorCravinswasabletogivehisfatherandmotherwholivedtoseetheirsonsunexpectedrisetopoliticalandsocialprominenceandpowerwasthepassageofpiecesoflegislationsolongedforbyhisfather.ThislegislationcontinuestobenefithiscommunityandthatofthelargercommunityofcitizensofunknowablenumbersacrosstheregionandtheStateofLouisiana.AndnowyouknowsomethingmoreofMayorDonaldCravinsofLouisiana.AndperhapsthroughthisnarrativeofbothhistoryandthestrugglesoftheCreolesofColourwecanlearnsomethingmoreaboutourselvestoo.ABOVEDONRIGHTANDLOUISIANAICONANDMUSICALLEGENDBUCKWHEATZYDECOOhIseemyselfretiredkickedbackandthehellwiththat-Wellitwillnothappen 20KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeature 21kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015Hollywoodisafickleplacethatmuchisknownwithcertaintybypeoplearoundtheglobe.BreakingintotelevisionandfilmrolesintheworldwidecapitalofentertainmentcanbedifficultespeciallyforthosewhodontfitthepreconceivedmouldforbeautythathasbeenestablishedoverthecourseofalmostacenturyinHollywood.TakeonelookattheaveragefilmortelevisioncastcomingoutofHollywoodandyouwillfindagroupthatconsistslargelyofindividualswithfairskinlongflowinghairandimpeccablebeautythatmatchesthearbitraryideaofbeautythatmostholdintheirmind.Everynowandthenhowevertheworldisgracedbythetrueconceptofbeauty.LupitaNyongoisthelatestitgirlinHollywoodandhertrueandsimplebeautyisturningheadsonscreenandinadvertisements.FromHumbleBeginningsLupitaAmondiNyongowasborntoDorothyandPeterAnyangNyongoon1March1983inMexicoCityMexico.BothDorothyandPeterNyongowerebornandraisedinKenyabutthefamilyhappenedtobelivinginMexicoCityin1983whenLupitathesecondofsixchildrenwasborn.Mr.NyongoaformerMinisterforMedicalServicesinKenyasgovernmentwasservingasapoliticalscienceguestlectureratElColegiodeMexicoin1983whenLupitawasborn.TodayMr.NyongoservesintheKenyanSenateasarepresentativeofKisumuCountywhileMrs.NyongoworksasthemanagingdirectorandheadofpublicrelationsattheAfricaCancerFoundation.IfyouhaveneverheardofLupitaNyongoitisentirelypossiblethatyouhavebeenlyingwithyourheadunderthesand.Fromherbreathtakingdebutrolein12YearsaSlavetohernominationasWorldsMostBeautifulPersoninPeopleMagazineLupitaisenjoyingoneoftheswiestascentstofamewitnessedinrecentyears.FromUnknowntoHouseholdNameTheSupersonicRiseLupitaNYONGOLUPITANYONGOATTHE17THANNUALHOLLYWOODFILMAWARDSBEVERLYHILTONHOTELBEVERLYHILLS.PHOTOS_BUCKLEY 22KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureBothofLupitasparentscomefromtheLuoethnicgrouplocatedinwesternKenyaeasternUgandaandtheMaraRegionofTanzania.TheLuopeoplerepresentthethirdlargestethnicpopulationinKenyabehindtheKikuyuandLuhya.AsanethnicgrouptheLuopeoplearebelievedtohaveoriginatedinsouthernSudanmigratingtoKenyaintheearly1500s.LupitasdiverseupbringingandfamilybackgroundhasgivenherarichlinguisticbackgroundthatincludesfluencyinLuoEnglishSpanishandSwahili.DuringherchildhoodLupitasfamilymovedfromMexicoCitytoNewYorkCitybrieflybeforereturningtoNairobiKenya.ShegrewupinamiddleclassregionofNairobiforthevastmajorityofherchildhoodwiththeexceptionofasevenmonthstintattheUniversidadNacionalAutonomadeMexicoinTaxcoGuerreroMexicowhereherparentssenthertolearnSpanish.AnArtisticBackgroundLightsaFireWithinLupitasfamilywasextremelyartisticandwhilegrowingupherfamilygatheringsONTHISPAGEFROMTOPFROMLEFTTORIGHTMATTHEWMCCONAUGHEYCATEBLANCHETTLUPITANYONGOJAREDLETOATTHE86THACADEMYAWARDSATDOLBYTHEATERHOLLYWOODHIGHLANDLOSANGELES.PHOTOHELGAESTEBLUPITANYONGOATTHE86THACADEMYAWARDSATDOLBYTHEATERHOLLYWOODHIGHLANDLOSANGELES.PHOTOHELGAESTEB 23kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015oftenfeaturedtheatricalandmusicalperformancesbythechildrenofthefamily.Herfirstexperienceonstagecameattheall-girlsschoolsheattendedasayouthinKenya.FollowingthatminorroleinOliverTwistLupitagotherfirstprofessionalshotasJulietinRomeoandJuliet.TheproductionwasputonbyPhoenixPlayersatheatricalcompanybasedinNairobi.FollowinggraduationfromSt.MarysSchoolinNairobiLupitaheadedtotheUnitedStatesforcollegeandthebeginningofabrilliantrisetofame.FirstshegraduatedfromHampshireCollegeinAmherstMassachusettswithadegreeinfilmandtheatrestudies.AftercompletinghercourseworkatHampshireCollegesheworkedonanumberoffilmsaspartoftheproductioncrew.ThetimeshespentasamemberofproductioncrewwhichincludedworkonthesetofTheConstantGardenerFernandoMeirellesandTheNamesakeRalphFiennesMiraNairbuiltuponthedesiretoactthathaddevelopedasayoungchildperformingforherfamilymembers.AlthoughLupitareturnedtoKenyafortelevisionandindependentfilmrolesin2008and2009sheeventuallyreturnedtotheU.S.foragraduatedegree.In2012shegraduatedfromtheYaleSchoolofDramawithaMastersdegreeinacting.WhileattendingYaleLupitaperformedonstageinDoctorFaustusLightstheLightsUncleVanyaTheTamingoftheShrewandTheWintersTale.NeartheendofhertimeatYaleLupitalandedthebreakthroughrolethatmadeherahouseholdnameintheU.S.andaroundtheworld.JustbeforegraduatingshewascastinherfeaturefilmdebutroleasPatseyinSteveMcQueenshistoricaldrama12YearsaSlave.ThefilmfollowedthetaleofSolomonNorthrupanAfrican-Americanwhohadbeenbornfreebutsoldintoslaveryin1841.AsPatseyLupitascharacterworkedalongsideNorthrupinthecottonfieldsandearnedherravereviewsforherperformance.LEFTLUPITANYONGOARRIVESATTHE2014MTVMOVIEAWARDSINLOSANGELESCA.PHOTODFREE 24kreolFeatureLupitasperformanceasPatseyearnedhernumerousawardnominationsfollowingthemoviesreleasein2013.SheendedupwinningtwomajorawardsduringawardseasonincludingtheScreenActorsGuildAwardforBestSupportingActressandtheAcademyAwardforBestSupportingActress.ShewasjustthesixthblackactresstowintheawardandthefirstAfricanandKenyanwomantodoso.RedefningBeautyinHollywoodLupitasstarhasbeenonastraightverticalascentsinceherappearancein12YearsaSlave.InApril2014shewasnamedPeopleMagazinesMostBeautifulPersonintheWorld.ForawomanwhocreditsOprahWinfreyandWhoopiGoldbergasinspirationsforherprofessionalactingcareerwinningtheawardnotonlyhelpedLupitachallengethepreconceivednotionofbeautyinHollywoodbutalsoallowedhertogaingreatercomfortinherownskin.InaninterviewwithPeopleMagazinesheadmittedthatsheneversawherselfasfittingtheHollywoodmouldforbeauty.PertheinterviewwithPeoplebeautywaswhatIsawontelevisionyouknowlightskinandlongflowingstraighthair.Subconsciouslyyoustarttoappreciatethosethingsmorethanwhatyoupossess.FollowinghermassivesuccessandmeteoricriseLupitahasbecomeamust-havecommodityinandoutofHollywood.SheappearedalongsideLiamNeesonandJulianneMooreinNon-StopinFebruary2014andhasbecomethedarlingoffashiondesignersandmakeuplines.Inearly2014shewasselectedasafaceoftheMiuMiuspringfashionlineandinApril2014wasnamedthenewfaceofLancomeParisalongsideHollywoodleading-ladiesJuliaRobertsPenelopeCruzandKateWinslet.ONTHISPAGEFROMTOPBRADPITTLUPITANYONGOANDSTEVEMCQUEENATTHEFILMINDEPENDENTSPIRITAWARDSATTENTONTHEBEACHINSANTAMONICACA.PHOTOHELGAESTEBCHIWETELEJIOFORANDLUPITANYONGOATTHEGQMENOFTHEYEARPARTYATWILSHIREEBELLINLOSANGELESCA.PHOTOHELGAESTEB 26KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeature 27kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015SidneyPoitierisoneofAmericasgreatestactors.TheBahamian-AmericanactorhelpedbreakcolourbarriersinHollywoodandwasoneoftherstactorstolandleadingrolesandattractaudiencesasanAfricanAmerican.Hiscareerincludesworkonthestageandinfrontofthecameraaswellasdirectinglmsandservingasadiplomat.OPPOSITEPAGESIDNEYPOITIERATTHE74THANNUALACADEMYAWARDSINHOLLYWOOD.PHOTOFEATUREFLASHSidneyPoitierisarguablyoneofthemosticonicactorsinthehistoryofAmericanfilmbutfocusingsolelyonhisachievementsonscreenignoreshisothermajoraccomplishments.PoitierisfromtheBahamasbutwasbornintheUnitedStateswhilehisparentswerevisitingthecountry.HisworkonandoffscreeninHollywoodhelpedredefineAfrican-AmericancultureintheUSatatimewhencivilrightswereonthemindofallAmericans.BorninAmericaRaisedinBahamasSidneyPoitierwasborntoEvelynandReginaldJamesPoitierofCatIslandintheBahamas.HisparentswerefarmersintheBahamaswithalargeproducefarm.ThefamilyregularlytravelledfromtheBahamastoMiamiUSAtoselltomatoesandotherproduce.WhenthefamilyvisitedMiamiinFebruary1927EvelyngavebirthtoSidneytwomonthsearly.HisparentsremainedbehindinMiamiwiththeirnewbornsonforthreemonthstonursehimtohealthbeforebringinghimbacktothefamilyfarmonCatIsland.PoitierwouldgrowuponCatIslanduntilhewas10whenhethenmovedtoNassauwherehewouldliveforthenextfiveyears.PoitierisconsideredaBahamian-AmericanbuthisuncleoncetoldthestoryofthefamilysarrivalintheBahamas.HeclaimsthatReginaldssideofthefamilycametotheBahamasfromHaitilongbefore.PoitiersunclestatesthatthefamilylikelyranawayfromHaitiasescapedslavesestablishingoneofthemanymarooncommunitiesthatcroppedupthroughouttheBahamasincludingCatIsland.MarooncommunitieswereestablishedthroughouttheCaribbeanafterAfricanslavesescapedslaveryincoloniesformingindependentsettlements.ActorFilmmakerDiplomatSidneyPOITIER 28KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureComingtoAmericaAttheageof15PoitiermovedtoMiamitolivewithhisbrother.AsaresultofhisunexpectedbirthinMiamiin1927PoitierhadUScitizenshipbybirth.AftertwoyearslivingwithhisbrotherhemovedtoNewYorkCitywhereheworkedinrestaurantslearningtoreadwiththehelpofafellowwaiter.AfterspendingtimeintheUnitedStatesArmyhelaunchedhiscareerasanactorwithasuccessfulauditionwiththeAmericanNegroTheatre.EarlyinhisactingcareerPoitierwasrejectedbyaudiencesoftheAmericanNegroTheaterbecausehewastonedeafandunabletosingeffectivelyinperformances.FollowingmonthsofhardworkriddinghimselfofhisBahamianaccentPoitierssecondrunintheAmericanNegroTheatergarneredattentionfromBroadway.HisappearanceintheleadingroleinLysistrataonBroadwaygatheredgoodreviewsandmoreattention.By1949hehadhischoiceofleadingrolesonBroadwayandinHollywood.HisfilmcareerwaslaunchedwithNoWayOutinwhichheappearedasadoctortreatingawhitemanwhowasanoutrightbigot.HissuccessledtomorerolesinHollywoodincludingmanyrolesthatwerenottraditionallyofferedtoAfrican-Americanactorsatthetime.HiscareerinHollywoodandonthestageonBroadwaywouldcontinuetogrow.HebecamethefirstmaleactorofAfricandescenttobenominatedforanAcademyAwardTheDefiantOnes1958andbecamethefirstactorofAfricandescenttowinanAcademyAwardforBestActorforhisroleinthe1963filmLiliesoftheField.AmonghisotherawardsPoitierwaspresentedthePresidentialMedalofFreedomfromPresidentBarakObamain2009.ThisisthehighestcivilianawardpresentedtoAmericancitizens.LifeAwayfromtheSpotlightPoitiermadeanameforhimselfinfrontofthecameraandonthestageasanactorbuthealsosucceededbehindthecameraandawayfromtheworldofentertainment.HehasdirectedanumberoffilmsincludingStirCrazy.ThefilmfeaturingRichardPryorandGeneWilderstoodforalongtimeasthehighestgrossingfilmdirectedbysomeoneofAfricandescent.FollowinghisactinganddirectingcareerheservedasamemberoftheBoardofDirectorsoftheWaltDisneyCompanyfrom1995to2003.InApril1997PoitiertookonanewroleasadiplomatforhisnativeBahamas.ThenationsPrimeMinisterappointedPoitierastheAmbassadoroftheBahamastoJapan.HeisalsothenationsambassadortoUNESCO.TothisdayPoitierholdsbothofthosepositions.SidneyPoitierisheldinhighregardintheUnitedStatesforbreakingthroughmanyofHollywoodscolourbarriersgainingattentionasalegitimateactorwhowascapableoflandingmajorrolesatatimewhenAfrican-Americanswereblockedfromsuchroles.PoitierredefinedtheimageofAfrican-AmericanactorsinAmericancinemaandonthestagesofBroadway.ThesituationdidnotchangeovernightbutwithoutPoitieritwouldhavebeenyearsbeforeAfrican-Americansgainedrespectaslegitimateactorscapableofsucceedinginkeyrolesandattractingaudiences.BELOWSIDNEYPOITIERANDFAMILY.PHOTOS_BUCKLEY 30KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureHerancestorswouldonlyhavebeenabletogetintoGovernmentHouseasservants.ButnowitisStLuciasownGovernorGeneralDamePearletteLouisynotanemissaryfromLondonwhoisincharge.TheDameontheHillPearletteLOUISYbyEdwinLaurent 31kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015RecentdecadeshaveseentherevitalisationofCreolecommunitiesandcultureinplaceslikeSt.LuciaMartiniqueSeychellesMauritiusandDominica.Thereactivistsandleadersareworkingtoreigniteinterestespeciallyamongtheyoungandbringthemclosertotheircreoleheritage.DamePearletteLouisySt.LuciasGovernorGeneralisonesuchleaderwhoiscampaigningforgreaterrespectrecognitionandappreciationoftheCreolelanguageandculture.MeettheDameCalliopaPearletteLouisywasborninSt.LuciaintheseasidevillageofLaborie.Afterherearlyschoolingthereshewonascholarshipin1960toattendtheprestigiousStJosephsConventSecondarySchool.ShelaterstudiedattheUniversityoftheWestIndiesandthenatLavalUniversityinQuebec.ShecompletedherimpressiveeducationwithaPhDfromtheUKsUniversityofBristolwhereshestudiedthemanagementandprovisionoftertiaryeducationinsmallstates.RoadtoGovernmentHouseThishighlygiftededucatorscareerbeganwithfoundationstageteachingattheLaborieInfantSchoolthenatStJosephsConventSecondarySchoolbeforemovingtotheislandsALevelCollegeasaFrenchtutor.WhenTheSirArthurLewisCommunityCollegewasinauguratedshewasappointedDeanoftheDivisionofArtsScienceandGeneralStudiesandlaterPrincipal.Shewasatthispostwhenon17thSeptember1997shewassworninasGovernorGeneralofSt.Luciabecomingthefirstwomantoholdthispost.TwoyearslatershewasknightedbyHerMajestyQueenElizabethII.HerFocusinOfceThepostdoesnotcomewithrealpowerinday-to-daygovernmenteventhoughtheholdercanappointanddismissthePrimeMinister.QueenElizabethalsohasthisauthorityintheUKandlikeDamePearlettewouldnotuseitatherpersonalwhimandfancy.InsteadsheactsstrictlywithintheframeworkoftheConstitutionandpoliticalandparliamentarystructures.OPPOSITEPORTRAITSINGOVERNMENTHOUSESTLUCIA 32KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureSowhatisreallyexpectedThereisnotaclearandhelpfuljob-description.IstheGovernorGeneraljustaceremonialfigureheadtrundledoutongrandstateoccasionswhootherwisepassesthetimepruningrosesinthegardenFordynamicDamePearlettethatjustwouldntdo.Evenifnotexplicitlyspeltoutthereareseriousexpectationssoshecantjustmakeuptherulesasshegoesalong.ThereforeshehasworkedwithsuccessiveGovernmentstoestablishproceduresandmorepreciselydefineoperationsandrolestoenabletheOfficetomakeitsfullestcontributiontogoodandeffectivegovernment.ShehasextendedthatzealtothewiderCaribbeanwheresheworkswithhercolleagueGovernorsGeneralforthatverypurpose.ShebroughtCreoletoParliamentInacountrywheremanypeoplearemorecomfortablespeakingCreolethantheofficiallanguageEnglishshewasthefirstGovernorGeneraltodeliverpartoftheThroneSpeechtoParliamentinCreole.NowsheregularlyusesitinotherofficialspeechescommunicatinghermessagenotjusttoelitesandEnglishspeakersbutthewholecountry.Thishasbeenverypopular.DamePearlettespeaksthelanguageofthepeoplewhoappreciateherlifelongenthusiasmforandcommitmenttoCreoleculturelanguageandresearch.ReachingouttotheCreoleInternationalAsshereachesouttotheCreoleworldDamePearlettetriestolearnfromtheexperienceofothercountriesliketheSeychellesinpromotingCreolecultureandlanguage.ABOVEGOVERNMENTHOUSETHEOFFICIALRESIDENCEOFTHEGOVERNORGENERALOFST.LUCIA.PearletteLouisythefirstwomantoholdthepostofGovernorGeneralofStLucia. 33kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015InSeychellesstudentslearnEnglishFrenchandCreoleandtelevisionradioandnewspapersuseallthreelanguages.SheadmiresthisrecognitionofCreoleintheSeychelleswhereitisanofficiallanguageandisnotseenasbackward.SpeakingofavisittoSt.LuciabyagroupofrepresentativesfromSeychellesDamePearletterecalledhowsharedCreolehelpedthemquicklyestablishacommonbondwiththeirStLuciancolleaguesalthoughtheywerefromtheothersideoftheworld.GreatestlegacyForgenerationsGovernmentHousefromitshillsideperchabovethecapitalCastrieshasdominatedStLucianlife.IncolonialtimesDamePearlettesancestorslikethoseofthemajorityofthepopulationwholookedlikethemwouldonlyhavebeenabletogetinasservants.ButnowitisthegirlfromthevillagenotanemissaryfromLondonwhoisincharge.SheseesbringingtheGovernorGeneralsofficeclosertothepublicashergreatestlegacyandriddingitofitsauraofremotenessandaloofnessfromordinarypeople.Sheisveryactiveinpubliclifeandinthepromotionofeducationartsandculture.Duringher17yearsinofficeshehasbecomePatronofseveralserviceorganisationslaunchedanumberofcharitiesandasocialeducationfundprovidingscholarshipstoneedystudents.SheactivelyengageswiththeyoungspeakingtoandhostingschoolchildrenatGovernmentHouse.Inrecognitionofherlifelongcommitmenttoeducationaprimaryschoolwasnamedafterherinwhichshetakesakeenpersonalinterest.Itsstudentshavebeenperformingverywellthisyearandlastyeartoppingthenationwideentranceexamsforhighschool.ButTheDameasmanyaffectionatelyrefertoheralsohasalighterside.HerschoolistheonlyonetobenamedafteralivingStLucianandsherecountshowamusedsheistohearitsometimesunwittinglycalledtheDamePearletteLouisyMemorial.Sheistootactfulthoughtopointouttheerrorandalsothatsheisstillverymuchalive.ABOVEINSIDEGOVERNMENTHOUSESpeakingofavisittoSt.LuciabyagroupofrepresentativesfromSeychellesDamePearletterecalledhowsharedCreolehelpedthemquicklyestablishacommonbondwiththeirStLuciancolleaguesalthoughtheywerefromtheothersideoftheworld. 34KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureWhatmakeshertickDamePearlettehaschangedthepublicperceptionoftheroleofGovernorGeneral.Howeverthecontinuouspublicscrutinyislikelivinginafishbowl.Forawomansuchattentioncanseemevenmoreintrusivebutshecopeswellsheisnotfazed.AskedhowitfeelsbeingthefirstfemaleGovernorGeneralsheretortsthatshecannotcomparebecauseshehasneverbeenamaleGovernorGeneralHersenseofhumourwarmpersonalityanddown-to-earthattitudehelpthepublicrelatetotheoffice.ThisisawomanofrealinfluencewhowantsthepeopleofSt.LuciatounderstandtheGovernorGeneralsroleinpromotingtheirbestinterestsandthoseofthenation.ButshealsohasanotherprioritytopromoteCreolecultureandlanguage.Thisgoalshevowstopursueforaslongassheisprivilegedtoholdthishighofficeandbeyond.ABOVETHEVIBRANTCOASTALCITYOFSOUFRIERESTLUCIARIGHTTHEPITONSARETWOVOLCANICSPIRESONTHECARIBBEANISLANDOFSTLUCIAANDAREAUNESCOWORLDHERITAGESITE. SaintLuciaisthebeautifulCaribbeanislandthathasitallandmore.HometothemagicalPitonMountainsunspoiltrainforestsun-soakedbeachesaworld-classchoiceofaccommodationdeliciousdiningandawholerangeofuniqueandthrillingactivitiesforeveryonetoenjoy.Comeandexperiencethissensationalislandforyourself.Liftyoursensesatwww.stlucia.orgcalluson02073417005oremailsltbinfostluciauk.orgformoreinformation.DISCOVERTHECARIBBEANISLANDTHATLIFTSALLYOURSENSES 36KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureMs.FrancineBarontookupthepostofHighCommissionerforDominicatotheUKinthesummerof2012.ArrivinginLondonwithloygoalsMsBaronhassoughtbothtoimprovetheprofleofDominicaontheworldstageandengagetheDominicanDiasporaatthesametime.KreolmetH.E.BaronatDominicasHighCommissioninLondontofndoutmoreaboutherandtheroleofHighCommissioner.FrancineBARONHighCommissionerforDominicatotheUK 37kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015AccordingtotheUnitedNationsthereare193officiallyrecognisednationsonplanetEarth.Amidstthemassoffreeandindependentstatesinthisworlditcanbeverydifficultforsomeoftheworldssmallernationstogainthekindofattentionrequiredontheinternationalstagetosucceedinaglobalisedeconomy.Nationsaroundtheworldselectthebestofthebrightestfromitscitizenrytoliveandtravelabroadasrepresentativesoftheircountryhopingtheprocessleadstointernationalattentionandinvestmentfortheirhomeland.AsoneoftheworldssmallestnationsDominicasHighCommissionintheUKistaskedwiththejobofpromotingthisislandnationofjust71293tothemajorpowersintheglobaleconomy.LeadingthischargeforthepeopleofDominicaisHerExcellencyMs.FrancineBaronHighCommissionerfortheCommonwealthofDominicaintheUK.DominicasHistoryAccordingtoMs.Baronherselfoneofthebiggesthurdleshercountryfacesontheinternationalstageistherelativelackofknowledgeaboutthecountryshistory.LocatedintheLesserAntillesregionoftheCaribbeanSeathenationofDominicawasnamedbyChristopherColumbuswhenhefirstlaideyesonitsbeacheson3November1493.ThatdayjusthappenedtobeaSundayleadingColumbustonametheislandDominicaaftertheLatinwordforthatparticulardayoftheweek.TheislandofDominicawouldremainlargelyuninhabitedforthe100yearsfollowingColumbusarrival.TheFrenchwerethefirstoutsideforcetoestablishacolonyontheislandbringinginAfricanslavestoworkontheislandalongsidenativeCaribswhohadsettledthereafterfleeingEuropeaninfluenceonsurroundingislands.AlthoughcontrolofDominicawouldpasstoGreatBritainin1763followingitsdefeatofFranceintheSevenYearsWaritwasthelatternationthathadagreaterimpactonthecultureofDominica.TheAntilleanCreolelanguagethatisstillspokenbymanyoftheislandsoldergenerationsistheresultoftheculturalmixtureofFrenchcolonistsAfricanslavesandnativeCaribs.BELOWFISHINGVILLAGEINSOUFRIEREBAYDOMINICA 38KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureHerExcellencyMs.FrancineBaronAnativeofDominicaMs.BaronsfatherwasapoliticiananddiplomathimselfwhoservedasDominicasFirstChiefMinisterandanon-residentHighCommissioner.DespiteherfatherspoliticalbackgroundMs.Baroncreditshermotherwiththepaththatherlifewouldfollow.HermotherwasinherownwordsastrongindependentwomanwhoservedastheinfluencethatdroveMs.Barontowardthelegalfield.AfterattendingaconventschoolasayoungwomanandstatecollegeMs.BaronattendedtheHolbornSchoolofLawintheUKbeginningin1991.ShewaslateradmittedtotheBarofEnglandandWalesbutwouldreturnhometoDominicatopursueherlegalcareer.Ms.BaronbeganasanAssociateAttorneyatdeFreitasdeFreitasChambersin1996.By2005shehadrisenthroughtherankstoobtainthepositionofPresidentoftheDominicaBarAssociation.Itwasatthispointthatherlegalcareerbegantoopendoorsintheworldofpolitics.In2007Ms.BaronstartedafouryeartermastheAttorneyGeneralforDominica.AlthoughherroleasAttorneyGeneralhadherprovidinglegalcounseltothegovernmentonanumberofissuesherprimarysuccessasAttorneyGeneralcameduringthecreationoftheOrganisationofEasternCaribbeanStatesOECSEconomicUnionTreaty.HighCommissioneroftheCommonwealthofDominicaintheUKAmidthepompandcircumstanceofthe2012SummerOlympicsinLondonMs.BaronmetwithEnglandsQueenElizabethtoformallypresenthercredentialsandassumethepostofHighCommissionerforDominica.AlthoughthegloryofthegamesandtheQueensDiamondJubileehadthecitywrappedinaglowofpatriotismMs.BaronwasnotoverwhelmedbythesituationandwastedlittletimegettingtoworkforthepeopleofDominica.Asanationofabout72000populationMs.Baroniswellawareofthechallengesthatherhomecountryfacesingettingattentionontheinternationalstage.InremarkstoDiplomatMagazinefollowinghercredentialsceremonyMs.BaronacknowledgedthosechallengesWearesometimesconfusedwiththeDominicanRepublicSoitisparticularlychallengingforasmallcountrytohaveitsvoiceheardandalsohavinganeconomythatissusceptibletoexternalshockslikenaturaldisastersorthefinancialcrisis.Thesearethingswehavenocontroloveryettheyhaveagreatimpactonus.Ms.BaronwasbluntinherlaterremarksstatingthatherpositionasHighCommissionercamewithtwoverycleargoals.FirstitwasherjobtohelpThetaskofNationbuildingliesnotonlyontheshouldersoftheDominicanswhohaveremainedonitsshoresbutextendsalsotothemanythousandsofDominicanswhoresideinmanynationsaroundtheworld.ABOVEROSEAUDOMINICAPHOTOTRETYAKOV 39kreolFeatureencouragethefurtherdevelopmentofDominicaandencourageeconomicinvestmentinthenationtohelpitbetterserveitselfandtheglobalcommunity.SecondlyitwasherjobasHighCommissionerandtheroleoftheHighCommissionoftheCommonwealthofDominicatoconnectwiththeDominicanDiasporalivingintheUnitedKingdom.OneofthelargestpopulationsofDominicanslivingoutsideofDominicaislocatedintheUKandMs.BaronbelievestheHighCommissionhasadutytoencouragetheseindividualstoworkforthegoodoftheirmotherland.RegardingeconomicinvestmentanddevelopmentMs.BaronisparticularlyinterestedinpromotinggeothermalenergyandecotourisminDominica.TheislandshighlevelofvolcanicactivitymeansthenationcantakeadvantageofgeothermalenergyforthebenefitofDominicaandthesurroundingnations.AnewgeothermalplantisindevelopmentintheRoseauValleyinDominicawiththeaimofharnessingenergytoprovideacleanercheapersourceofenergytoresidentsandlowerthecostofelectricity.AdditionallytheHonourableRayburnBlackmooreMinisterforEnergyhassaidthatby2015Dominicawillbeproducingandexportingenergytoitsneighbours.Ms.BaronpointsoutthatDominicaalsohasmagnificentpotentialasanecotourismdestination.UnlikemanyofitsCaribbeanneighboursDominicassmallpopulationandrelativelylowurbanisationhasleftvasttractsoftheislandwithitsnaturalbeauty.AmongthemoreimpressivefeaturesoftheislandarebreathtakingmountainsdenseforestsmajesticwaterfallsandBoilingLakewhichistheworldssecond-largesthotspring.FornatureloversDominicaoffersawideopenopportunityforecotourism.Ms.BaronhopesthatthroughherworkintheUKshecanencourageinvestmentfromprivateindividualsandcompaniesinthetourismindustryinDominica.PerhapsmostimportantthoughinhermindistheHighCommissionersdutytoreconnectDominicawiththeDominicanDiasporaintheUK.ManyoftheislandsnativesonsanddaughtersnowcalltheUKhomeandthegovernmentinDominicaislookingtotaptheknowledgeandresourcesoftheDominicanDiasporatoaidinnationbuildingbackhome.Ms.BaronputitbestinalettertoherfellowDominicansaspostedintheofficialDominicaHighCommissionnewsletterwhenshesaidThetaskofNationbuildingliesnotonlyontheshouldersoftheDominicanswhohaveremainedonitsshoresbutextendsalsotothethousandsofDominicanswhoresideinmanynationsaroundtheworld.WeshareacommonheritageacommondesiretoseeDominicaprogressanddevelop.WhatpartcantheDominicanDiasporaplayinachievingthesesharedgoalsThereisawealthoftalentandresourceswhichresideintheDominicaDiaspora.CarryingonaStrongTraditionMs.BaronspositionasHighCommissionermakesherthelatestinaproudlineoffemaleleadersthathavehelpedguideandshapeDominicaduringthecourseofitsfreehistory.AsHighCommissionerMs.BaronisanotherexampleofstrongfemaleleadershipfromanationwhichproducedthefirstdemocraticallyelectedfemalePrimeMinisterDameMaryEugeniaCharles1980-1995inthehistoryoftheCaribbean.TOPJUNGLESTREAMROSEAUDOMINICABOTTOMMIDDLEHAMFALLSLAUDATVILLAGEMORNETROISPITONSNATIONALPARKDOMINICA 40KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureMostpeoplethinkofInternationalrelationsintermsofpoliticsandcommunicationbetweenheadsofstate.Inrealityitistheunseendiplomatworkinghardtokeepinternationalrelationshummingalong.CarlosdosSantoshasservedasadiplomatforMozambiquesincetheageof19whenhisedglingnationsMinistryofForeignAairscalledontalentedyouthtohelp.CarlosdosSANTOSTheCareerDiplomatThatNurturedForeignAairsinMozambiqueTheAfricannationofMozambiqueisanationontheriseinthe21stcentury.Afternearly500yearsofPortugueserulethecountryachievedindependencefromitsEuropeancolonisersin1975.Atthatpointintimethenationwasembroiledinabitterwarforcontrolofitsfuture.Since1992Mozambiquehasenjoyedgrowthandstabilityasademocraticrepublic.CarlosdosSantoshasbeenthereforhisnationthroughoutitsgrowingpainshelpingtoestablishitsforeignconnectionsandwatchingwithprideashishomelandsinternationalprofileimproves. 41kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015MozambiqueinhisYouthWhenMr.dosSantoswasbornin1961hishomelandwasstillacolonyofPortugal.Bythetimehewas10thenationhadsetoutonanewpathasanindependentstate.DuringthoseearlyyearsofindependenceMozambiquewasforcedtostartfromscratchinitsattemptstobuildgovernmentagenciesandestablishinternationalconnections.Thenationhadnodiplomatsorpoliticianswithexperiencemeaningeveryonewasgoingtohavetolearnonthejob.Attheageof19Mr.dosSantoswasateenagerinsearchofacareerandafutureofhisown.Thenationhadvarioussecondaryschoolstoprepareitsyouthforfuturecareerpaths.Therewereschoolsforthesciencesindustrialsectorsandcommercialtrainingtonameafew.ForhispartMr.dosSantoswascontemplatingacareerasanaccountantandwaslookingintoanaccountingprogrammeatsecondaryschool.HoweverhesoonfoundhimselfinvolvedinthenationsMinistryofForeignAffairs.Mr.dosSantoscouldnotaffordandhisparentsdidnothavethemoneytohelphimtofurtherhiseducation.Heneededtofindajobtosupporthimselfincontinuinghisformaleducation.Thefledglingnationsforeignaffairsdepartmentswoopedinwithasuggestionforthetalentedyoungster.Hepossessedanaturalinterestandknowledgebaseinhistory.TheMinistryofForeignAffairsinneedoftalentedyouthtohelpdevelopacoreofdiplomatsofferedhimajobandtheopportunitytopursueadegreeininternationalrelations.TheCareerDiplomatIfyouaskMr.dosSantosabouthiscareerasapoliticianhewillquicklycounterthatheisnotapolitician.AccordingtoMr.dosSantosthereisasignificantdifferencebetweenapoliticianandadiplomat.HeexplainedthedifferenceinaninterviewwithKreolMagazinestatingthefollowingBELOWMAPUTOMOZAMBIQUE.PHOTOFEDORSELIVANOV 42KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureThethingisImacareerdiplomat.Thekindofjobwedoispoliticalbutwearenotcalledpoliticiansassuchwearediplomatscareerdiplomats.Someambassadorsareappointedpoliticallythosearetheoneswhocomefrompoliticshaveacareerinpolitics.ButIamacareerdiplomatwhostartedasanattachandprogressedtothirdsecretaryfirstsecretaryacounselloraministercounsellorMinisterPlenipotentiaryandthenAmbassador.Mr.dosSantoshasspentthemajorityofhisadultlifealternatingbetweenhisstudiesandhisprofession.AshebeganhisdiplomaticcareerintheMinistryofForeignAffairshecollectedanannualsalaryworkinginentry-levelpositions.Overtheyearshewouldworkforastretchoftimeandthenreceivetimeofftoattendtohisstudies.AccordingtoMr.dosSantoshiswork-studybalanceintheministryworkedasfollowsThatwasthenafter5yearsofworkingandstudyinginterruptingworktostudyfullyoneyearandthentwoyearsworkandgobacktoschoolandthenoneyearhewouldinterruptandthethirdyear.IntotalfiveyearsweweregivenabachelorsdegreeequivalenceandwebecamethefirstdiplomatsofMozambiqueoncewefinishedthetraining.Oncehehadcompletedhisinitialdegreeandtraininghebeganworkingasafull-timediplomat.HisfirstmajoroverseasappointmentasadiplomatforMozambiquewasinNewYorkCityasanattachattheUnitedNationsUN.Multiplepostingsabroadfollowed.HespentfiveyearsinZimbabweasajuniordiplomat.Whilelivingthereheearnedtwograduate-leveldegrees.AsastudentattheUniversityofZimbabwehewasconferredwithaBachelorHonoursDegreeandaMastersDegree.Hestudiedbothpoliticsandadministrationandinternationalrelations.IntheyearsthatfollowedheworkedindifferentpositionsintheMinistryofForeignAffairs.PresidentJoaquimChissanoaskedMr.dosSantostoserveashisPrivateSecretarybeginningin1992.AfterfouryearsinthatpositionhewassenttoNewYorkasanAmbassadortotheUN.HeearnedanExecutiveMBADegreeatBaruchCollegeCityUniversityofNewYorkwhileworkingaspermanentRepresentativetotheUN.Followingsix-and-a-halfyearsinthatposthereturnedhometoserveasaSeniorAdvisortothePresidentandthenreturnedtothediplomaticrealmastheAmbassadortoGermany.NewHorizonsTodayMr.dosSantosservesasHighCommissionerofMozambiquetotheUnitedKingdomandNorthernIreland.HisroleintheUnitedKingdomismuchthesameashispreviouspositionsasadiplomat.WhilelivingintheUKitishisjobtoeducatetheinternationalcommunityaboutthepotentialforinvestmentinMozambiquepromotebilateralrelationsbetweentheUKandMozambiquenurtureinternationalrelationsamonggovernmentsandconnectwiththegrassrootscommunityofexpatslivingabroad.AprimarygoalfortheHighCommissioneristoencourageinvestmentandbusinessinhishomeland.Mozambiquesitsonawealthofnaturalresourcesincludinghugenaturalgasandcoalreservesthatcanprovideabrighteconomicfutureforthepeopleofthenation.EducatingtheWorldonMozambiqueMr.dosSantosseeshishomelandasadynamicuniqueculturethathasmuchtooffertheworld.HespeaksofhisnationintermsofthecommonalityABOVELEFTBEAUTIFULSCENERYINNAMAPAMOZAMBIQUE.PHOTOSVETLANAARAPOVAABOVERIGHTAPODOFDOLPHINSCATCHAWAVEANDSURFITINMOZAMBIQUE 43kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015ofeverything.Heviewshiscountryasaplacewheremanyculturesandethnicitieshavebondedtogethertoformonenationalidentity.ForexamplethepeopleofMozambiquespeak36differentlanguagesbuttheofficiallanguageremainsPortuguese.After500yearsofPortugueseruletodaysMozambiqueisaplacewhereculturaldiversityisconsideredthewealthofthecountry.Mr.dosSantosisfluentinPortugueseEnglishandtheethniclanguageofRongahismothertongue.Everynationheissenttoasarepresentativeofhishomelanditishisjobtoconveythewealthofhisnationtoothersandpromotemutuallybeneficialpartnerships.FutureDreamsandAmbitionsItisdifficulttoaskamanwhohasalreadyspent20yearsworkingasadiplomatwhereheseeshiscareerinthefuture.ByhisownadmissionhebelievesthathehasfulfilledhisdreamsandaspirationsasadiplomatworkingoverseastoboostawarenessandtheimageofMozambique.PressedbyKreolMagazinetoexplainhishopesforthefuturehesaidthefollowingTheaspirationforadiplomatyouwillfindinmanycountriesistocontinuetoservethecountryindifferentplacesandthatswhatIaspiretodo.ThatiswhatIhopetocontinuetodo.AfteralifetimeintheMinistryofForeignAffairsheclearlyunderstandshisgoalsandhascraftedasimplemessageforthepeopleoftheworld.WhenaskedwhathewouldlikeeveryonetoknowabouthishomelandhehadastraightforwardanswerWellitsforpeopletovisitMozambiqueorreadaboutMozambiqueandlearnmoreaboutMozambiqueandtheywillcertainlyiftheyreadaboutitandknowaboutittheywillwanttovisitbecauseitisaninterestingexcitingandwelcomingcountry.ItisoftencalledThePearloftheIndianOcean.THISPAGECLOCKWISEFROMLEFTMAKUAWOMENWITHTRADITIONALWHITEFACEMASKINPANGANEMOZAMBIQUE.PHOTOALBERTOLOYDYOUNGTRADERSELLINGTRADITIONALAFRICANMASKSINTHEMARKETINMAPUTOMOZAMBIQUE.THELOCALMARKETSAREKEYTOURISTATTRACTIONSOFTHECITY.PHOTOFEDORSELIVANOVPANGANEBEACHMOZAMBIQUE 44KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMostFamousSlavesinHistoryIn1742aMajorGeneraloftheImperialRussianArmypetitionedtheEmpressElizabethforpermissiontoestablishacoatofarms.ThecrestcreatedfeaturedanelephantandthecrypticlettersFVMMOnowbelievedtobetheabbreviationoftheLatinmottoFortunaVitamMeamMutavitOppidoorinEnglishFortuneHasChangedMyLifeEntirely.ForMajorGeneralAbramPetrovichGannibalthiswascertainlytrueinhislifehisfortunehadledhimfromayoung7yearoldboykidnappedandmadeaslavetoapositionasageneralandnoblemaninRussia.ALifeChangedbyFortuneAbramPetrovichGANNIBAL 45kreolMostFamousSlavesinHistoryKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015ThestoryofGannibalisnotwellknowntodaybutitrepresentsaclassic-andtrue-storyofsomeonewhosufferedgreatdifficultiesbutroseabovethemtogreatachievements.Aninspirationallife.Hisstrengthandfortitudeenabledhimtosurvivegreathardshipsandhisintelligencepermittedhimtoseeadvantagesandopportunitiesinhisdesperateplightsbutmostofallhiskindnessandloyaltybroughthimfriendshipsandhonour.EnslavementThereissomeconfusionaboutthismansbirthandearlylifebutitisbelievedthathewasborntoatribeinwhatisnowCameroonWestCentralAfricaintheprovinceofLogonsouthofLakeChad.Attheageof7hewaskidnappedapparentlybymembersofarivaltribeandsoldtoArabslaversinWestAfrica.Theusualmethodatthattimewasthatslaverswouldmarchgroupsoftheirnewslavesboundaroundtheneckbywoodencollarsandtiedtoeachotherbyrope.ThetripwouldhavetakentheminlongcolumnsmarchingonfootfromWestAfricatotheslavemarketsinZanzibar-over2000milesaway.HowayoungboysurvivedsuchatripwhichmusthavetakenayearcannotbeimaginedbuthedidlivetofinishthejourneyonlytobesoldandtakentothecourtoftheSultanoftheOttomanEmpireinConstantinople.BoughtbytheRussianambassadorHewouldhaveprobablyhavespenttherestofhislifeasahouseholdslaveoftheSultanexceptforthepresenceofonemanSavaVladislavich-RaguzinskytheRussianambassadortothecourtoftheOttomanEmpire.In1704justastheslaveboyknownasAbramarrivedinConstantinopletheRussianwasabouttoreturntoMoscow.BeforehelefttheambassadoraskedtheSultanforpermissiontobuythreeyoungAfricanslaveboystotakebacktoRussia.WhyVladislavich-RaguzinskywouldasktodothisisunknownwasitarequestfromMoscoworjustawhimInanycaseoneofthethreeboysselectedforpurchasewasthenewly-arrivedAbram.SobeganthenextstageofthisyoungAfricanslife.Moscowandastrokeofself-madeluckTheconditionsofthetriptoMoscowadistanceofover1000milestotheeasternsideofEuropewerecertainlylesshorrificthanundertheArabslavers.Theboyswerenotforcedtomarchinchainsbutinsteadwereprobablypassengersinwagonsorcoaches.DuringthistimewhichmusthavebeenseveralmonthsyoungAbramadaptedtohisnewsituationandapparentlylearnedsomeoftheRussianlanguage.WeknowthisbecauseofanincidentthatoccurredsoonafterhearrivedinMoscow.AsthereturningambassadortotheOttomanEmpireSavaVladislavich-RaguzinskyhadanaudiencebeforetheCzarPeterIknowntohistoryasPetertheGreat.DuringthisaudiencetheyoungAfricanboyswerebroughtbeforetheCzarandAbramwasabletospeakinRussiantothemonarch.SurprisedandclearlyimpressedPetertheGreatorderedthatAbramstayaspartofhishouseholdasaservant.RelationshipwiththeCzarPetertheGreatForthenextyearwhileservingintheroyalhouseholdAbramnotonlybecameafavouriteoftheCzarbutalsobecamefriendswithPetersdaughterElizabeth.ItwasduringthistimethatRussiawasinvolvedintheGreatNorthernWarinwhichRussiaanditsallieswerefightingagainstSwedentorecapturecontroloverthesouthernareasoftheBalticSea.WhenPetertheGreatwouldleaveMoscowtogoonmilitarycampaignsdiplomaticvisitswithhisalliesortovisitthenewcityhewasCapturedbyArabslavetraderssoldtotheSultanoftheOttomanempirebutboughtbytheRussianambassadortotheSultanscourtandtakentoMoscow. 46KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMostFamousSlavesinHistorybuilding-SaintPetersburg-hewouldtakeAbramalongwithhimasapersonalservant.ForhispartAbrambegantotakeaninterestinthemilitaryandengineering.TherelationshipbetweentheCzarandhisyoungservantbecamesoclosethatin1705whenhedecidedtobecomebaptizedintotheRussianOrthodoxChurchPetertheGreatstoodashisGodfather.AsaresulttheformerslaveandnowfriendoftheCzarofallRussiaadoptedthenameAbramPetrovichGannibalthepatronymicforhisRoyalGodfatherandthelastnameintheRussianformofthenameofthegreatCarthaginiangeneralHannibal.EducationandmilitaryservicewithaFrenchfavourIn1717now21yearsoldAbramtravelledtoMetzFrancetostudytheartssciencesandmilitarysubjectsincludingengineering.Afterayearofclasseshedecided-withtheCzarsencouragement-tojointheFrencharmytoobtainpracticalfieldexperienceinmilitaryengineering.DuringthecampaignsoftheFrencharmyagainstSpainAbramwassteadilypromoteduntilhereachedtherankofcaptain.Atonebattlehoweverhewaswoundedandwasunabletoremaininactiveservice.AfterherecoveredfromhiswoundhespentayearattendingartilleryschoolinMetzandvisitingParis.ExiletoSiberiaredemptionandmarriagesNowthathehadgainedauniversity-leveleducationandcombatexperienceAbramreturnedtoMoscowin1723.Notyet30yearsoldtheyoungofficerlookedforwardtoasuccessfulcareerintheRussianImperialArmy.Unfortunatelyfatehadotherplans.AfteralongillnessCzarPeterIdiedatonlyage52.HiswifeCatherinetookthethroneasEmpressbuttherealpowerofthethronecameunderthecontrolofagroupofadvisorsparticularlythecorruptPrinceAleksandrDanilovichMenshikov.TheprincedislikedAbramnotonlybecausehewasanAfricanbutalsobecausehehadfriendsandinfluenceatthecourt.ToremoveCapt.GannibalfromMoscowPrinceMenshikovhadhimassignedtoanarmyunitstationedinSiberiaandgavehimthetaskofusinghisengineeringskillstomeasuretheGreatWallofChinajustovertheRussianborder.Itwasabriefexilehowever.AlthoughtheEmpressCatherinediedafterjusttwoyearsonthethronebeforeshedidthecorruptPrinceMenshikovspowerwasbrokenandhehimselfwassentintoexiletoSiberia.GannibalreturnedtoMoscowwhereheresumedhiscareerintheImperialArmy.HemarriedEvdokiaDioperaGreekwomanbutthemarriagewasunhappyandshesoonprovedtobeunfaithful-forwhichshewassenttoaconventforlife.AlthoughGannibalwasnotlegallydivorcedfromheruntil1753hebegantolivewithChristinaReginaSlbergdaughterofaSwedisharmycaptainanddescendedfromthenobilityofScandinaviaandGermany.ThiswasaveryhappyrelationshipandwhenhewasformallydivorcedfromEvdokiaGannibalmarriedChristina.Duringtheirlongandlovingmarriagetheyhad10children.TheboybecameafavouriteofPetertheGreatthemonarchstandingashisGodfatherwhenhewasbaptizedandgiventhenameAbramPetrovichGannibal.RIGHTDRAWINGOFGANNIBALSPEAKINGWITHALEXANDERSUVOROVSUVOROVISONEOFTHEFEWGENERALSINHISTORYWHONEVERLOSTABATTLEBEINGUNDEFEATEDINOVER60MAJORBATTLESWHILEALWAYSHAVINGANUMERICALDISADVANTAGE.PHOTOILLUSTRATEDNAVALANDMILITARYMAGAZINE1888 47kreolMostFamousSlavesinHistoryKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015RaisedtotheRussiannobilityDuringthenextfewyearsRussiaalthoughatpeacemilitarilywasinembroiledininternalconfusionduetoaseriesofshort-livedmonarchs.In1741thethronewassuccessfullyclaimedbyElizabeththedaughterofPetertheGreatandGannibalsfriendsincechildhood.OnceagainGannibalsfortuneschangedThenewEmpresspromotedhimtoMajorGeneralandgavehimimportantresponsibilitiestoallowhimtousehistalentsandtraining.HewascommanderofRevelfrom1743until1751andwasalsoresponsiblefortheconstructionofseveralfortresses.PerhapshisgreatestsuccesswastooverseethecompletionoftheconstructionoftheLadogaCanalaprojectbegunover20yearsearlierbyPetertheGreattoimprovenavigationandtrade.TheEmpressElizabethalsoraisedhimtothenobilitywhichallowedhimtotakeacoatofarmsandgavehimalargeestateinPskovprovince.GannibalslegacyAleksandrPushkinMajorGeneralAbramPetrovichGannibalcontinuedtohonourablyserveRussiaandtheEmpressElizabeththroughoutherlongtwenty-yearreign.Uponherdeathin1761GannibalretiredtohisestatesinPskovwherehelivedhappilywithhisbelovedwifeChristinauntilhisdeathin1781atage85.HissonIvanwentontobecomeanotedadmiralintheRussiannavyandhisgreatgrandsonwouldbetheRussianauthorAleksandrPushkinwhowroteanovelabouthisancestor.HisadventurouslifehasrecentlybecomethesubjectofanewbiographyGannibalTheMoorofPetersburgbyHughBarnesProfileBooks2005.SomeBritisharistocratsdescendfromGannibalincludingNataliaGrosvenorDuchessofWestminsterandhersisterAlexandraHamiltonDuchessofAbercorn.GeorgeMountbatten4thMarquessofMilfordHavenacousinofQueenElizabethIIisalsoadirectdescendantasthegrandsonofNadejdaMountbattenMarchionessofMilfordHaven.ABOVEPORTRAITOFIVANABRAMOVICHGANNIBAL1735-1801SONOFABRAMGANNIBAL.IVANTHEELDESTSONBECAMEANACCOMPLISHEDNAVALOFFICERWHOHELPEDFOUNDTHECITYOFKHERSONIN1779ANDATTAINEDTHERANKOFGENERALINCHIEFTHESECONDHIGHESTMILITARYRANKINIMPERIALRUSSIA.BELOWGANNIBALSGREATGRANDSONALEKSANDERSERGEYEVICHPUSHKINWHOISCONSIDEREDBYMANYTOBETHEGREATESTRUSSIANPOETANDFOUNDEROFMODERNRUSSIANLITERATURE.PHOTOIRYNAAbramsgreatestengineeringfeatwastocompletetheconstructionoftheLagodaCanalasawaterwaytransportationtoavoidLakeLagoda. 48KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolHistoryThemodernworldisoenviewedthroughalensofmulticulturalism.Globaleconomiesairtravelandculturalconnectionsandwarshaveturnedsocietiesaroundtheworldfromisolatedcommunitiesintorichlydiversecommunities.FewpeoplerealisethatthemulticulturalismtheworldenjoystodayistheresultofimmigrationandmigrationthathasbeentakingplaceoverthecourseofmanycenturiesitismostcertainlyNOTaseriesofrecentevents.Warfamineandeconomicopportunitydrivepeopletomigratearoundtheworldtodayandthosesamefactorshavebeenpushingandattractingpeopleacrossinternationalborderssincetheageofsailingships.SuchisthestoryofHaitislittle-knownPolishcommunity.ComplicatedHistoryThehistoricalincidentsthatbroughtPolishcitizenstotheshoresofHaitiarecomplexandinterwovenwithEuropeanhistory.ThejourneyofthesePolesbeganin1772whenmilitaryforcesfromRussiaPrussiaandAustriabeganconqueringportionsofEasternEuropeincludingpresent-dayPoland.Overthecourseofthenext30yearsPolishcitizenswouldbefightingfortheirfreedomfrominvadingforcesanddistantrulerswhoknewlittleoftheirland.BecauseofthewarfareintheregionPolandformedanalliancewithFrancetocounterbalancetheinfluenceofEasternEuropeanpowers.ThePolishmilitaryforceswereintegratedintoNapoleonsFrenchArmybutretainedadistinctionasPolishfightingunits.ItwouldntbelongbeforeeventstakingplaceintheCaribbeanwouldbringPolishtroopstotheshoresofHaiti.In1802Napoleonsentamilitaryforceconsistingofsome5200PolishtroopstoSaint-DomingueasHaitiwasthenknownastheHaitianRevolutiondeveloped.ThePolishsoldierswereinformedtheyweregoingtoaidFranceinquashingarevoltontheisland.WhenthePolishforcesarrivedtheydiscoveredaverydifferentsituationthantheyhadTheStoryofHaitisPolishCommunityFewinsideandevenlessoutsideofHaitiareawareofthepresenceofalongestablishedHaitianPolishcommunityLAPOLOGNE 49kreolHistoryKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015beentold.TheslavesofHaitiwererevoltingagainstFrenchrulewhichgavetheslavesacommonbondwiththenewlyarrivedPolishtroopswhoregardedthemselvesasenslaved.DesertionandEstablishingRootsThePolishforcesthathadleftEuropetorestoreorderandfreepeopleinHaitifoundthattheywereinsteadbeingaskedtoquasharebellionandreturnHaitianstoslavery.KnowingwhattheirownpeopleweregoingthroughinEuropefightingforfreedomthePolishforcescouldnotfightagainsttheHaitianslavearmy.Manyofthe5200PolishsoldiersdesertedNapoleonsarmyandrefusedtofight.SignificantnumbersofthePolishsoldiersjoinedforceswiththeHaitianslavearmyundertheleadershipofJean-JacquesDessalines.ForthenexttwoyearsthesePolishsoldierswouldfightanddiealongsideHaitianforcesinanefforttofreethecolonyfromNapoleonsoppressiverule.By1804acombinationoffactorshadledtoHaitianvictoryoverFrance.AtthesametimemainlandEuropewasburningfromEasttoWestaswarragedacrossthecontinent.AresumptionofhostilitiesbetweenFranceandBritainandmountingdebtsledNapoleontopulloutofmanyofitscoloniesintheWesternHemisphere.NapoleonsoldalargeswathofNorthAmericatotheUnitedStatesintheLouisianaPurchase.HisforcesinHaitidevastatedbywarfaremalariaandyellowfeverpulledoutoftheislandandreturnedtoEurope.BythistimemanyofthePolishforceshadperishedfightingalongsidetheHaitians.Oftheremainingtroops700returnedtoEurope.Roughly400remainedinHaitibecausetheyeitherwantedtodosoorcouldnotaffordtoflee.ASpecialExemptionWhentheFrenchlefttheislandfollowingthevictoryofDessalinesslavearmyanuneasytimesettledovertheisland.ManywhiteresidentsthatremainedbehindontheislandwereslaughteredfortheirsupportoftheFrenchcolonisers.WhenanewHaitianconstitutionwasdrawnupin1805itincludedaprohibitionofwhitemenfromowninglandinHaiti.Onlytwoexceptionsweremadetothisruling.Germancitizenswhohadremainedneutralinthefightwereallowedtoremainintheirsmallcommunity.TheotherexceptionPolanders.TheVillageofCazalesPriortotheadoptionoftheHaitianConstitutionof1805theremainingPolishsoldierswhohadfoughtforthecolonysindependencefearedfortheirsafetyaswhitemen.ManyofthemfledtoremotepartsoftheislandandkeptalowprofileinhopesoflivingpeacefullyinHaiti.ThevillageofCazaleslocated45kilometersnorthofPort-au-PrinceintheruggedhighlandsofHaitibecameabastionforPolishsoldiers.ThevillageisbelievedtohavederiveditsnamefromthecombinationofPolishandCreolewords.TheCreolewordkaymeaninghomewascombinedwithZalewskiacommonPolishsurnameamongthetroops.KayZalewskitranslatedfromHaitianCreolemeansthehomeofZalewski.OverManyPolishsoldiersintheFrenchforcesenttoHaititoquashtheslavesrevoltof1802sidedwiththeinsurgents.ABOVELEFTBATTLEOFVERTIERESIN1803.ABOVERIGHTBATTLEATSANDOMINGO.APAINTINGBYJANUARYSUCHODOLSKIDEPICTINGTHESTRUGGLEBETWEENPOLISHTROOPSINFRENCHSERVICEANDTHEHAITIANREBELS. 50KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolHistorythecourseoftimethevillagebecameknownasCazales.TodaythevillageremainsthecenterofthePolish-Haitiancommunity.ManyofthepeoplewholivetherenowexhibituniquephysicalcharacteristicsthatserveasoneofthefewremindersoftherolePolishforcesplayedinHaitisfightforfreedom.ManyofthevillagesresidentshavelightskinandblueeyesfeaturesnotcommoninHaitianCreolecommunities.ImpactonCreoleCultureinHaitiThepeopleofCazalesremainedlargelyisolatedfromtherestofHaitifollowingthecolonysindependence.HoweverovertheyearsonebitofPolishreligiousculturedidmanagetoimprintitselfonHaitianVoodoo.HaitianVoodooisprimarilyderivedfromthedeityandancestorvenerationthatwaspracticedinwesternAfricaduringtheheightoftheAtlanticslavetrade.TherearespiritsthatexistinHaitianVoodoothatdonotexistinvoodoopracticedinAfricaduringthistimeperiod.SlaveslivingonCaribbeanislandsunderthecontrolofFrancewereforbiddenfrompracticingreligionsotherthanCatholicism.InHaitiaprocessknownassyncretisationtookplacewhichsawCatholicsaintsbecomeidentifiedwithvoodooloaspirits.SomeCatholicsaintsevenbecameloaintheirownright.AsitpertainstoPolishcultureinparticularitistheBlackMadonnaofCzestochowskaCzarnaMadonnaCzestochowskainPolishthatconnectsthetwocommunities.ThevoodooloaErzulieDantorbearsaremarkableresemblancetotheBlackMadonna.InPolandtheBlackMadonnaishousedatthemonasteryatJasnaGora.LegendstatesthatthepaintingwascreatedbySt.LukeonatabletopthatbelongedtoMaryandJoseph.Intheimageawomanwithascarredfaceisprotectinganinfant.IntheCatholicfaiththeimageisinterpretedasamotherfiercelyprotectingthechildshecarries.InaliteralsensemanyPolesviewthechildasJesus.Eveninthe21stcenturymanyPolishCatholicskeepimagesoftheBlackMadonnaintheirhomes.InHaitianVoodooDantorissaidtohavebeenpresentatavoodooritualin1791thatsparkedtheslaverebellion.ItissaidthatDantortookoverthebodyofavoodooworshiperandtoldHaitianstokillthestranger.ThisisbelievedtohavesparkedtherevolutionthatledtoindependenceandtheslaughterofallremainingFrenchmenontheisland.TheimageofDantorfeaturesawomanwithscarsonherface.VoodoolorestatesthatErzulieDantorlovedknivesandreceivedherscarsinafightwithhersisterErzulieFreda.Haitiansviewthosescarsasasignofstrength.Dantoriswoundedbutshecontinuesthefighttoprotectherchild.Itisnotpreciselyknownhowthesetwopiecesofartcametobeconnected.ManybelievethatthedarkskinoftheBlackMadonnamadehermoreeasilyacceptabletoHaitians.Othersbelieveitwassimplyamatterofmultiplecopiesoftheimagecirculatingontheislandfollowingtherevolution.The5200PolishlegionnairesthatcametoHaitiin1802toquashamythicalrebellionarebelievedtohavebroughtwiththemcountlessimagesoftheBlackMadonna.TodayitremainsasoneofthefewremindersoftheconnectionbetweenPolandandHaitiandasourceofidentityforthePolishHaitiansinhabitingthecommunityofCazales.ABOVERIGHTTHEBLACKMADONNAOFCZESTOCHOWSKA 52KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusic KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201553kreolMusicOPPOSITEPAGEANDRETHIERRYANDZYDECOMAGICATFESTIVALINTERNATIONALDELOUISIANELAFAYETTE.PHOTODAVIDSIMPSONCAJUNZYDECOPHOTOSTheCalifornianCreoleZydecoProdigyZydecomusicisoneofthemostculturallyuniqueartformsintheUnitedStates.AproductoftheCajuncultureofsouthernLouisianaZydecoisknownforitstraditionalrhythmsandmoremodernfastpacedgrooves.OnceconsideredanartformonthebrinkyoungtalentslikeAndreThierryhavehelpedresurrectZydecoforthenextgeneration.AndreTHIERRYEverypersononplanetEarthisbornwithasetofinnateskillsorcharacteristicsthatwillhelpthatpersonsucceed.Fromfarmerswithahard-workingneverquitdevotiontotheirjobtoactorswithaknackforperfectlybringingwordstolifeonstageeveryonehasatalentthatmakesthemunique.Somepeoplewillfindthatnaturalabilityoverflowingfromthebeginninggiftedwithrawtalentthatsomeothersmightneverpossessnomatterhowmuchtheystudy.Therearealsothosewhoshowsignsofnaturalabilitybutneedhelpperfectingtheirskillsinordertoprosperfromthemandsharetheirgiftwiththeworld.ThentherearethoselikeAndreThierrywhonotonlypossessawealthofrawnaturaltalentbutalsothedrivesupportanddesiretorefinethoseskillsandsharetheirgiftswiththeworld.TheCalifornianCreoleWhenAmericanshearthetermCreoletheirmindsautomaticallyshifttotheswampsandbayousofsouthernLouisianawheretheFrench-speakingAcadienssettledinthemid-1700s.TheiruniqueFrenchCreoleculturedevelopedoverthreecenturiesisoneofthemostdistinctsub-culturesinAmericansociety.AndreThierrythoughnotdirectlyhimselfisaby-productofthistrulyuniquecreolecultureinAmericansociety.Bornon7July1979andraisedinRichmondCaliforniaThierryhasdeeperrootsinLouisianasFrenchCreoleworldthanotherscouldeverhopetohave.ThierrysparentsnowresidentsofCaliforniawerebornandraisedinLouisianaaswerehismaternalgrandparents. 54KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusicFromaveryyoungageThierrydisplayedacertainaptitudefornotjustmusicbuttheZydecomusicmadefamousbygenerationsofCreolesfromLouisianasbayous.UnliketheseothermusicianshoweverThierrywasneitherbornnorraisedinLouisiana.ThisdidntstophisparentsandgrandparentsfromworkinghardeachdaytoensurethatThierrydidnotforgetwhohereallywas.Hefirstdisplayedaknackformusicatthetenderageofthree.JustasbluesmusicianshadmigratednorthbeforethemCreoleandZydecomusiciansmigratedwestbeginninginthe1960sandbroughtwiththemtheirsoulfulbeats.ThierrysparentsandgrandparentswouldroutinelyplayhosttoZydecomusiciansvisitingCaliforniaanditwasattheageofthreethatalegendofZydecodeclaredThierrythenextgreataccordionplayerofZydeco.IntroductiontoZydecoItwasthelateCliftonChenieronavisittotheSanFranciscoareathatgrabbedthreeyearoldAndrebythearmsanddeclaredhimafutureaccordionplayer.AyoungThierrywasforeverimpressedbyChenierandwouldlaterusehismusicasaninspirationforhismusicalstudies.ButitwaslocalmusicianBillyWilsoncurrentlyamemberofMotorDudeZydecothatgavehimhisfirstaccordion.OverthecomingyearsThierrywouldlargelyteachhimselftoplaytheaccordionbylisteningtoCheniersmusic.Hiswealthofnaturaltalentwasquicklymouldedintoshapeandbytheageof12hehadformedhisownbandZydecoMagic.EvenatthatyoungageThierrysabilityandtalentwererecognisedandembracedbyotheractsinNorthernCalifornia.InnoshortorderhewasinvitedtoplayalongsidesomeofthegreatestvisitingLouisianabandsandlocalZydecogroupsincludingJohnDelafoseGenoDelafosetheCaliforniaCajunOrchestraMotorDudeZydecoandZydecoFlames.AsThierrysexposureincreasedhisrepertoiregrew.Overtimehewasabletomasteravarietyofaccordionssuchasthesingledoubleandtriplerowaswellasthepianokey.Hismusicaltalentswerenotconfinedtoplayingtheaccordion.Ashegotolderandgainedexperiencehebegantoventureintosongwritingandevengainedproficiencyinotherinstrumentsincludingthebassguitarrhythmguitaranddrums.CaliforniaRaisedwithRootsinLouisianaItwasnotThierrysskillwiththeaccordionalonethathelpedhimbecometheZydecolegendheisevenatthestillyoungageof34.Insteaditwasthegroomingofhisparentsandgrandparents.WithbothpreviousgenerationsbornandraisedinLouisianaitwasimpossibleforThierrytoescapehisFrenchCreoleroots.ThroughouthisyouthandhisstudieshisparentsandgrandparentsmadesurethatThierryremainedintouchwithhisCreoleheritage.ThiswasmadepossiblenotsolelybecauseofthestringofZydecoartistsstayingwithhisgrandparentswhilevisitingCaliforniabutbecauseofhisfamilystightknitculture.HisparentsandgrandparentsbelievedthatThierryshouldneverlosesightofwhohewasculturally.HemayhavebeenaCalifornianbybirthbuthewasaCreolebyblood.AsaresultoftheirdeepinvolvementinThierryslifeheisabletowriteandperformsongsinoriginalFrenchCreoleaswellasEnglishandashehasmaturedhasdevelopedatrulyrichandsoulfulvoice.AccoladesandFutureThierryhasreachedgreatheightsalreadyinhisyoungcareer.AsanartisthehasmanagedtoblendtraditionalZydecowithmoremodernapproachestothegenre.Heiscapableoflayingdownatraditionalsoulfulslowsongorafastpacedkineticgrooverwithequaltalentandskill.HisfusionofZydecospastwithitspresentandfuturehavepropelledhimtothetopofhisgenre.HisgroupwasawardedtheWestCoastBluesHallofFameawardin2008foritsexceptionalpresenceintheZydecogenre.ThierryandhisbandmembersrangintheNewYearin2014atEaglesHallinAlamedaCAandhaveseveralsmallvenueeventsplannedacrosstheSanFranciscobayareathroughoutthisyearandbeyond.BELOWANDRETHIERRYPLAYINGACAJUNACCORDION.PHOTOMATTBEARDSLEYCREATIVE KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201555kreolMusicGRAMMYNominatedAndreThierryagiftedcomposerandaccordionvirtuosoiscollaboratingwithPerformingStarsofMarinFeleciaGastoncreatingamusicalprojectforatriskyouthboysinMarinCounty.Theprogramcombinestradi-tionalandnewlycomposedmusicexploringtheCreolecultureandZydecothemusicofSouthwestLouisiana.Arelativelynewgenreofworldmusichavingcomeaboutasastyleofitsowninonlythemid1900s.ZydecoforKidsoffersfuninteractivewaystoshareamixofAfricanNativeAmericanBluesFrenchdancemelodiesandelementsofAfro-Caribbeanmusic.TheinstrumentsintroducedarethevestscrubboardsdrumsandaccordionallpopularZydecoinstruments.TheprojectwasintroducedinMarch2012atPerformingStarsinMarinCityCalifornia.Theartistusedthisthemetostructurethiscollaborationcomposingworkthatthechildrencanprocess.Allhaverespondedtoavarietyofworksandtootheraspectsofsocialtransformation.Theprojectprovidescrosscurricularandexperi-entiallearningopportunitiesleadingtoperformingwiththeartistatlarge-scaleevents.ZydecoforKidswithAndreThierryandPerform-ingStarshavecultivatedastrongbondthathastakenrootinMarinCounty.Themusicalprojectissproutingsuccess.Theartistandorganizationareenteringtheirthirdyeartogetherdedicatedtomusic.Thegroupwillcontinuetoconnectwithnewgenerationsengagingthecreativeprocessofcomposingperformingnewworksanddevelopingaladderofleadership.Futureparticipantshavetheopportunitytobementoredbytheyouththatbeganwiththeoriginalproject.WITHANDRETHIERRYY 56KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusicLhistoiresacclre.Aprsuneanne2013exceptionnelleCfnotammentlessuccsdeChristineSalemetdeZanmariBarlamusiquerunionnaisevientdeconnatreunvnementquiaugureduneanne2014aumoinsaussirichequelaprcdente.WARFIELDLanaissancedumtaloyaLaraisondecetenthousiasmeUnepetitervolutionseloncertainsunpasdegantpourdautres.Entoutcasungrandcoupdepieddanslesprjugs.LesneufmembresdeWarfieldetdeLindigorunissontparvenusrsoudreunequationquonpensaitjusqualorsimpossiblefusionnerlerocketlemaloyalamusiquetraditionnelledelle.Nombreusesonttlestentativesplusoumoinsheureusesmaisaucunentaitparvenueunteldegrdeperfection.Aprsdesannesdetergiversationslosmosetantattendueaenfineulieu.Elleporteunnommtaloya.WarfieldgroupedeheavymetaletLindigogroupedemaloyaontfaitentrerencollisionleurdeuxuniversaprioriradicalementoppossentredunctunemusiquelectriqueagressiveetsatureetdelautreunemusiqueacoustiquetouteenpercussionhritedelesclavage.Aveccommepointcommunlapuissanceetlnergie.SurcettebiennommeledelaRunionlacombinaisondesdeuxgenresmusicauxsonnecommeunenouvelleodeaumtissagelesdeuxformationstantparvenuescreruneuvrecollectivecapablederavirlesmlomanesdetoutesobdiences.Lactedenaissancedumtaloyaatsignle14fvrierderniersurlascneduthtreLucDonatauTampon.Blanc-Blancsondirecteuradjointestlorigineduprojet.CestenrencontrantOlivierArastelecharismatiqueleaderdeLindigoquilaeulidedecetteconfrontationoriginale.EnlisantsabiographiejaiapprisquilaimaitlehardrocketquilavaitmmefaitdesreprisesdeScorpionsracontelecerveaudelopration.AlorsquandOlivierArasteluiaconfiquilaimeraitbienavoirdesgrossesguitaresdanssamusiqueBlanc-Blanclui-mmechanteurdehardrockauseindugroupeNazcaaeuundclic.QuestiongrossesguitaresWarfieldenconnatunrayon.Ferdelancedunescnemtalrunionnaisedjvieilledetrenteanslegroupeatchoisipoursonrpertoirequisaventureavecbonheursurleterraindunerythmiqueen6x8maisaussipoursadmarcheprofessionnelle.WarfieldUnegrossemachinebienTextThomasArcensPhotoMikaelThuillier KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201557kreolMusichuileestimeBlanc-Blancquisuitleurparcoursdepuisplusieursannes.Cestainsiquestnecetteidechocdunmaillagedumaloyaetdumtal.Uneidecontre-naturequisiellenemanquerapasdefairebondirlespuristesdfautdelesfairedanserporteenellelespromessesdunsous-genremusicalforcmentappelgrandir.Unepremirerptitionaeulieuaumoisdejuinhistoiredefaireconnaissance.Unerencontreinformelleaucoursdelaquelleilsesttoutdesuitepassuntruc.OnsestrencontronaparlpourvoirquipouvaitsuivrequicommentonallaitpouvoirsemboterpourcreruntrucsympaindiqueAlexandreguitaristedeWarfield.CarSiOlivierArastealuiunecertaineculturehardrockcenestpaslecasdesmusiciensquilaccompagnelesquelsilfautbienlavoueronteuunpeupeuraudbut.Maislescraintesonttvitedpasses.AdeuxgroupesonarussicrerunseulbonhommeprciseAlexandre.Ilyalossatureetlachair.Ilnyenapasunquiestdevantlautre.Quandtroismoisplustardlesneufmusiciensaussienthousiastesetcostaudslesunsquelesautressesontretrouvssurlascneduthtrepourentamerleurpremiersemainedersidencelalchimienapastard.OnnesavaitpasqueaallaitaussibiensepasserconfieAlexandre.IlsonttoustravaillenbonneintelligenceexpliqueencoreBlanc-Blanc.Ilyaeubeaucoupderflexiondepartetdautremaispasdetergiversation.Quandilafallutrancherilsonttranch.TranchantaussilesriffsdeguitaresdeWarfieldquidonnentunenouvelleampleurlenvotantmaloyadeLindigopourlamenerauxlimitesdunefusioncroledontunegrandepartiedesterresrestedfricher.MaisunefoisleuphoriepasseunefoislquationrsolueuneinconnuedemeurelacapacitdeLaRunionsurmontersesblocagesculturelsaccepterquelepassscriveauprsentenunmotreconnatrequelatraditionvolue.Cestvoir.CestdailleurslaraisonpourlaquellecommelexpliqueBlanc-Blancau-deldeleffetdesurpriseintressantqueceprojetpeutsuscitersurlleilestsurtoutdestinsexporter.AprsunesriedeconcertschezeuxWarfieldetLindigodevraientdoncbienttallerporterlabonneparoledumtaloyaau-deldeleurle.Sijamaisilspassentprsdechezvousnelesratezpas.Quevoussoyezfandehardrockoupas. 58KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December-January20142015kreolMusic58KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusicFOXYBROWNFoxyBrownisoneoftheiconicfemalerappersfrom1990s.Thoughhercareerhasdroppedoshewasamagnetforpublicityinherdaysbothgoodandbad.WelookathercareerandunfortunatelegalruninsthatoenlandedherinthenewsforthewrongreasonsAProleofherMusicalCareer KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December-January2014201559kreolMusicTherearefewmusicalartformsthatareasuniqueasrapmusic.Therapandhiphopmusicgenresintheircurrentformarerelativelynew.EachstylehastakenfansbystormintheUSandhasgivenrisetomanytalentedperformers.IngaDeCarloFungMarchandbetterknownasFoxyBrownisanexampleofafieryfemaleartistwhosemusicalcareerhasspanned20yearsandencompassesaperiodoftimethatisconsideredtobetheheightofhermusicalgenre.AnEarlyStartFoxyBrownwasbornonSeptember61978intheNewYorkCityboroughofBrooklyn.BrowncomesfromafamilywithAfro-TrinidadianandChineseheritage.HerfatherKeithStahlerwasamusicianwhoabandonedthefamilywhenBrownwasachildtopursuehisowncareer.FromayoungageFoxysmusicalabilitieswereevidenttoherimmediatefamilymembers.Hermusiccareertookoffin1994whenshewasdiscoveredbyaproductionteamworkingonanupcomingLLCoolJalbum.Brownjusta16-year-oldatthetimewonatalentcontestheldintheParkSlopeneighbourhoodofBrooklyn.MembersofTrackmasterswereinattendanceatthecontestandweresotakenbyBrownsabilitythattheybroughtherintoperformonthesingleIShotYaonLLCoolJsMr.Smithalbum.Herperformancewassoimpressiveandhertalentsoobviousthatabiddingwaractuallybrokeoutbetweenrecordlabelstosigntheteenager.DefJamRecordseventuallywonthebiddingwarsigningthe17-year-oldBrowntothelabelandreleasingherdebutalbumin1996.ThatalbumIllNaNawasmetwithmixedreviewsbutstillexperiencedstrongsales.CollaborationsandFeudsFoxyBrownhasaremarkablelistoffellowartistsshehasworkedwithduringnumerouscollaborations.EarlyinhercareersheperformedalongsidethelikesofLilKimDaBratandTotal.ShealsoworkedwithJay-ZBlackstreetMethodManandKidCaprionherdebutalbum.ForabriefperiodoftimeduringhercareerFoxywaspartofaso-calledsupergroupknownasTheFirm.TheFirmincludedNewYork-basedhiphopperformersNasAZandNature.Togetherthegroupreleasedaself-titledalbumthroughAftermathRecordsthatdebutedat1ontheBillboard200albumchart.Itsoldmorethan500000copiesandhasbeencertifiedgoldbytheRIAA.InadditiontoworkingwithNasAZandNaturethealbumallowedFoxytoworkwithDr.DrewhohelpedproducethealbumalongsideTheTrackmasters.OthercollaborationsinhercareerincludeappearanceswithfellowartistsateventssuchasMTVsSpringBreakfestivities.ShesappearedattheseeventswithSnoopDoggtheSpiceGirlsErykahBaduandOutkasttonameafew.AttimesthoughBrownscollaborationshaveledtoconflictandfeudswithotherperformers.Someofherhigh-profileconflictsincludedisagreementsandpublicspatswithperformerssuchasQueenLatifahKuruptEveJaRuleandJackie-O.HoweverallofthosedisputespaleintocomparisontoherlongstandingissueswithformerfriendLilKim.FoxyBrownandLilKimhaveapersonalhistorythatdatesbacktotheirtimeinhighschool.Theartistswerehighschoolfriendsandcollaboratedearlyintheirrespectivecareersdespiteperformingforseparategroupsandrecordlabels.Theenmitybetweenthetwoisbelievedtohavestartedwiththereleaseoftheirdebutalbums.Musiccriticsnoticedsimilaritiesbetweentheartworkonthealbumsandthesituationwasfurtherescalatedbythefactthattherecordlabelsscheduledthealbumsforreleasejustaweekapartin1996.Justayearlatertheanimosityescalatedastheirpersonalrelationshipdeteriorated.Subsequentalbumreleasesovertheyearsfeaturedsinglesinwhichthetwoexchangedveileddigsatoneanotherandthebickeringwentinandoutofthepublicspotlight.Asof2012theartistsnolongerspeakwithoneanotherandfailtoevenrecognisetheothersexistencewhenaskedaboutthestateoftheirrelationship.OtherIssuesFoxyBrownsmusiccoupledwithherprovocativeattitudesellsrecordsandattractsfansbutawayfromthemusicshehashadherfairshareofdifficulties.InDecember2005shehadtoputhermusiccareeronholdbecauseshebegansufferingfromhearingloss.Sheunderwentsurgerytocorrecttheproblemandreturnedtohermainstreamactivitiesinthesummerof2006.Hercareerhasalsobeenthreatenedandfrequentlystalledbynumerousencounterswithlawenforcement.Herlegaltroublesbeganatthestartofhermusicalodyssey.In1997shehadaverbalaltercationwithhotelemployeesinRaleighNorthCarolina.TheincidenteventuallyresultedinanarrestwarrantbeingissuedforBrownbecauseshefailedtoappearforherdesignatedcourtdate.OthernotableincidentsincludebeingescortedoffstagebypoliceduringaconcertinTrinidadandTobagoforobscenelanguageanarrestfordrivingwithoutalicenseandacashwithlawenforcementofficersatNormanManleyInternationalAirportinKingstonJamaica.Shespentseveralmonthsinjailin20072008followingafightwithmanicuristsinaNewYorkCitysalon.CurrentWorkFoxyBrownremainsactiveinrapandhiphopcircles.Shereleasedastreetalbumin2008thatpeakedat5ontheTopRBHip-HopAlbumchart.Currentlysheisbelievedtobeworkingonafourthstudioalbumbutithasnotyetreceivedareleasedate.OPPOSITEPAGEFOXYBROWNATTHE2012MTVVIDEOMUSICAWARDS.PHOTOWENN 60KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusicFromTrinidadwithSoulHeatherHEADLEYHeatherHeadleymightnothavetheinstantrecognitionofsomeartistsbutsheisperhapsmoretalentedthanmanyofherfellowcelebritymusicians.AnaccomplishedperformerwithfouralbumstohercreditsheisalsoaTonyAwardwinningactressonBroadway. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201561kreolMusicMusiciansoftengravitatetowardsthemajormarketsintheworldastheircareergainstractionandtheirpopularityincreases.Someoftheworldswell-knownmusicalartistsmaycalltheUnitedStatesCanadaorEuropehomebuttheirheartoftenliesinalandfarremovedfromwheretheycurrentlyresttheirhead.HeatherHeadleyisaperfectexampleofanartistwhoseheartliesinherCaribbeanhome.OriginStoryHeadleymayresideintheUnitedStatestodaybutshewasbornonthebeautifulCaribbeanislandofTrinidadonOctober51974.ShewasbornandraisedinthetownofBarataria.ThetownisaquietresidentialarealocatedjustoutsideofPortofSpainofferingthestandardsuburbanmixtureofchurchesshoppingandbars.ItwasinhernativeBaratariathatHeadleysmusiccareerbegan.Attheageoffourshebeganplayingmusicthatwasapartofhernativecreoleculture.SheperformedcalypsoandsocatunesestablishingabaseforherfuturecareerasasuccessfulRBandsoulsingersongwriterandrecordproducer.ThedaughterofHannahandEricHeadleyherfatherscareerbroughthertotheUnitedStatesin1989.HerfatherapastorwasofferedthepositionofpastoratMcKeeStreetChurchofGodinAndersonIndiana.ThefamilyrelocatedtoFortWayneIndianathatsameyear.MusicCareerHeadleysmusiccareerbeganinOctober2002whenherdebutalbumThisIsWhoIAmwasreleasedthroughRCARecords.Thealbumachievedmoderatesuccesshitting38onUSBillboardchartsand14ontheRBcharts.ShewasnominatedforBestFemaleRBVocalPerformanceandBestNewArtistattheGrammyAwardsforherdebutalbumbutdidnotwineitheraward.Hersecondalbumwashermostsuccessfulbyfar.Thealbumpeakedat5ontheUSBillboardchartsand1ontheRBcharts.ShewouldnotwinaGrammyAwarduntilherthirdalbumwasreleased.ThiswasAudienceofOnehelpedHeadleynabaGrammyAwardin2010forBestContemporaryRBGospelAlbum.ActingCareerMoreimpressivethanhermusicalcareerhasbeenheractingcareer.UnlikesomanymusicianswhobelievetheycansucceedinfeaturefilmsHeadleynotonlysucceededasanactressbutdidsoawayfromtheglamourofHollywoodonstageonBroadway.LongbeforehermusicalcareereventookoffshelandedtheroleofNalaintheoriginalBroadwaycastofTheLionKing.TheplaywithmusicandlyricswrittenbyEltonJohnandTimRicerespectivelywouldhelplaunchgreatersuccessforHeadleyasanactressonthebigstage.FollowingherperformanceinTheLionKingJohnandRiceaskedHeadleytoauditionfortheleadroleintheplayAida.HeadleylandedthatroletooandreceivedcriticalacclaimforherportrayaloftheNubianprincess.HerperformancealsogarneredmajoraccoladesasshewonaDramaDeskAwardforOutstandingActressinaMusicalandaTonyAwardforBestActressinaMusicalforherroleasAida.ThatsameyearshewouldwintheSaraSiddonsAwardforherworkintheChicagotheatrescene.OverthecourseofherbrilliantactingcareershealsoappearedatLondonsAdelphiTheatreinthemusicaladaptationofthe1992WhitneyHoustonfilmTheBodyguard.IntheplayHeadleytookontheroleofRachelMarronearningnominationsforanOlivierAwardandaWhatsOnStageAwardforherperformance.HeadleysperformancewassostrongthatsheisexpectedtoreprisetheroleofMarroninanupcomingBroadwayproductionofTheBodyguardslatedtoopenduringthe2014-2015Broadwaytheaterseason.CollaborationsandAppearancesHeadleysimpressivelistofachievementsincludesanumberofcollaborativeperformancesovertheyears.In2006sheperformedthesongIllNeverFallInLoveAgainforthePBSbroadcastofTheKennedyCenterPresentsThe2006MarkTwainPrize.TheeventhonouredplaywrightNeilSimon.ThefollowingyearsheappearedalongsideAndreaBocelliinLajaticoItalyinhisVivereLiveinTuscanyconcert.Thepairperformedduetsoftwosongsattheconcertevent.In2009shesangwithJoshGrobanduringWeAreOneTheObamaInauguralCelebrationattheLincolnMemorial.MorerecentlyshehaspartneredwithBocelliagainperformingwithhimonhisUKTouratGlasgowHydroandtheLeedsFirstDirectArena.TodayHeadleyisrecognisedasoneofthemosttalentedsinger-songwritersandactressesintheUS.HersoulfulrhythmsandpowerfulvoicehavebeenacclaimedandappreciatedinRBandsoulcirclesandaidedinherevolutionasaninspirationalgospelsinger.HertalentsasamusicianhavehelpedherbuildanequallyimpressiveresumeasanawardwinningactressonstageintheUSaswellastheUK.OPPOSITEPAGEHEATHERHEADLEYATTHEPOST-SHOWREDCARPETOFAMERICASGOTTALENTTHEFINALESEASON8ATRADIOCITYMUSICHALLNEWYORKCITY.PHOTODEBBYWONG. 62KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusicThePreachersDaughterToniBRAXTON KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201563kreolMusicBornin1967inSevernMarylandUSAToniBraxtonisknownworldwideforherRBsingingandsongwritingcareerbutthistalentedladyisalsoanaccomplishedproducerandevenacts.TheeldestofsixBraxtonhasastringofmusichitstohercreditincludingthenumberonehitUnbreakMyHeart.Itsoldover66millionrecords.BraxtonhasjokedthatshewasdiscoveredatanAnnapolisgasstation.ThatchanceencounterwhilefillinguphercarhasfueledastunningcareerevidencedbyGrammyAwardsandchart-toppinghits.TheBraxtonsAChildhoodDevotedtoSongAlongwithhersiblingsBraxtongrewupsinginginchoir.BorntoaMethodistclergymanandopera-singingmothertheBraxtonchildrenimbibedinamusicalhousehold.TheyalsotouredtheEastCoastwiththeirparentssingingatreligiousgatherings.AlthoughToniBraxtonenteredBowieStateUniversitytoearnherteachingdegreeshetookachanceasshestatedandleftherstudieswhensheencounteredaproduceratanAnnapolisgasstationwhorememberedhearinghersingandwantedtoproduceher.AlongwithhersistersBraxtonrecordedthesongTheGoodLifewhichwasreleasedbyAristaRecords.ThesongdidnotlaunchthegrouptostardomandAristawoundupdroppingtheBraxtonsbutitdidgainsomeattentionfromindustryheavyweightslikeBabyface.ToniwastappedbyBabyfacetorecordasongoriginallywrittenforAnitaBaker.Braxtonrecordedthesongandithelpedherobtainarecordcontractinherownname.In1993shereleasedToniBraxtonherself-titleddebutthatwouldhitthetopspotontheBillboard200.BraxtonTakesCenterStageThoughhersisterscontinuedrecordingasTheBraxtonsTonienjoyedanillustriousdebutasasoloartist.BraxtonsdebutproducedbyBabyfaceAntonioReidandDarylSimmonsspawnedsuchhitsasAnotherSadLoveSongandBreatheAgain.FourmoresingleswerereleasedfromthealbumdemonstratingBraxtonsincrediblevocalrangeandversatilityasasinger.ThealbumstremendoussuccessresultedinthreeGrammyAwardsincludingtheGrammyforBestNewArtist.ThealbumreachedplatinumstatuseighttimescementingBraxtonasanRBsensationandanewforceinthemusicindustry.BraxtonsStarShinesWorldwideAfterthesuccessofherfirstalbumBraxtonreleasedSecretsasophomoreeffortthatwouldevenoutshineherdebut.TodateSecretsisBraxtonsbest-sellingalbumcontainingsuchmega-hitsasUnbreakMyHeartandYoureMakinMeHigh.ThealbumtransformedBraxtonfromasensationtoasuperstar.BraxtonalsopickeduptwomoreGrammyAwardsforherworkonSecretsandsimultaneouslybecameahouseholdname.Bythemid-1990sBraxtonhadsoldmorethantwentymillionrecordsinliterallyjustafewyearsfromthetimeofherdebutin1993BusinessIntrudesInspiteofBraxtonsincrediblesuccessbankruptcyloomedfortheartist.Braxtonwasforcedtosueherrecordcompanybecauseitwasnotpayinghertheproceedsshewasowed.ThebankruptcywaspublicOPPOSITEPAGETONIBRAXTON.PHOTOSBUCKLEY 64KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFeatureandcertainlyadifficulttimeforBraxtonwhohadgeneratedsomuchsuccessinsoshortatime.Braxtonwasforcedtorelinquishmanyofherpossessionsowingtothelengthofthecourtbattle.EventuallythecasewassettledandBraxtonwasabletoreclaimherpossessions.ThecasehowevertookyearstoironoutandconsequentlyBraxtonwasunabletoreleaseanalbumforroughlyfouryears.InspiteofthatdifficultperiodBraxtontookonotherprojectsincludingherworkwithDisneywhichfeaturedherintwoBroadwaymusicals.MarriageandRecordingBraxtonreleasedTheHeatin2000anditdebutedatnumbertwointheU.S.WithhercareerbackontrackBraxtonalsomarriedmusicianKeriLewisandgavebirthtotheirsonin2001.TheHeatdidntachievethesamesuccessasBraxtonsearlierrecordingshoweveritdidreachdouble-platinumstatus.WhileworkingonherfourthalbumBraxtonbecamepregnantwiththepairssecondson.ThefourthalbumwasdifficultasBraxtonsrecordcompanydidlittletopromotetheofferingsinceBraxtonwasconsignedtobedrestduringherpregnancy.AlthoughBraxtonsfourthofferingdidntachievethesuccessoftheothersshecontinuedtoperformworldwidetocriticalacclaim.PerformanceasidethedecadewasadifficultoneforBraxton.HeryoungestsonwasdiagnosedwithautismandBraxtonseparatedfromherhusbandin2009.In2011thesingerwasdiagnosedwithLupusaconditionshehasbeensuccessfullycontendingwithbutonethatrequiresconsiderableattentiontoherhealth.BraxtonagainhadtoentertainlegalbattleswithherlabelbeforemovingontoAtlanticRecords.TheBraxtonLegacyWithappearancesonDancingwiththeStarsandarecentcollaborationonBroadwaywithBabyfaceBraxtonhascontinuedtoentertainherfansbysingingandacting.HerlatestalbumLoveMarriageDivorceisacollaborationwithBabyfaceandproofthatBraxtonstillhasthatspark.Particularlythatvoicewhichisavehicleforpowerfulemotionandwhichcontinuestohithomewithherfans.FanswhomBraxtonstillinspiresinsomanyways.Hermusictouchesmanyasdoesthegracewithwhichshedealswithlifestrials.AsthepreachersdaughterherinspirationalgiftsaremanyanditsnotsurprisingthatBraxtonscareerisflourishingonceagain.ABOVETONIBRAXTONANDKENNYBABYFACEEDMONDSATTHEKENNYBABYFACEEDMONDSHOLLYWOODWALKOFFAMESTARCEREMONY.PHOTOHELGAESTEB. 66KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolMusic66cChrisArdoinLafayetteLouisianabasedZydecoaccordionistandsingeriscreditedforformingthenouveauzydecosoundanewstyleofmusicthatfusedtraditionalzydecowithhip-hopandRB.HehasreleasedhislatestCD-BackHome.The17-trackalbumwaslaunchedatMardiGras2014andhasbeentoppingchartsoniTunesAmazonandGoogleplay.ThisisarareandgreatachievementforaZydecomusician.ChrisispleasantlysurprisedThatisamazingtomeforthecultureitsabigthingtogetthatkindofresponsetoanalbum.ThealbumstartedgettingalotofbuzzwhenIdroppedthealbumcover.Thepicturewastakeninfrontofanoldhouseonthebackofmyproperty.Ithinkitcaughtalotofpeoplesattention.ShortlyafterBackHomewasreleaseditreachedtheBillboardmusiccharts.NottobemissedLedbyChrisMilleronvocalsaccordionfiddlekeysandharmonicathisgroupprovidesamusicaladventurethatcantakesomeveryexcitingandsurprisingturns.Thebandisa2012WinnerofCFMAAccordionistoftheYearWinnersofthe2006CFMABandoftheYearRecordingoftheYearandPeoplesChoiceawardsIfyouareintoCajunmusicthenthisisaCDforyou.Youwillexperienceamusicalbayoufortifiedwithnewlycomposedmusicenrichedwithabluesychromaticaccordionaccentingswamp-poprockandrollandclassiccountrysongs.TakeamusicaljourneythatisasauthenticasthepeopleplacesandeventsthatdefineLouisianacultureanddiscoveryourownBayouRoots.ReviewsChrisArdoinBackHomeChrisMillerBayouRoots KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201567kreolMusicJoeSamy-SeychellesJoeSamyaveteranSeychelloisartistfamouslyknownforhiscollectionofpatrioticsongsabouthisnativeislandsSeychellesrecentlyreleasedhislatestalbumtitledSeychelles.JoeisfluentinFrenchEnglishandhismothertongueCreoleandseamlesslyintegratesallthreelanguagesinthisalbum.ThetracksareacombinationofFolkReggaeSegaandsoftRock.ThealbumhasreceivedrecognitionfromtheInternationalDisccompanytheAmericanDiscMakers.JoeSamysaidthatthisrecognitionisamajorachievementasitsendsoutaclearmessagethatSeychelloisartistscanproducehighqualitymusicofInternationalstandard.ThisCDisarguablythebestcompilationofJoespastandpresenthitsofferingatasteoftheSeychellesvibes.HaitianMusicTodayHaitismusictoday2012isacompilationofsongscontainingamixtureofinfluencesandstylesfromEuropeAfricaLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean.Haitianmusicisverydiverserangingfrommoretraditionalgenressuchasjazztoonly-in-HaitiflavoursandincludingVodouKompaandMizikRasin.Thiscompilationhasalittleofeverythingandsomethingforeveryoneandwillmakeagreatadditiontoyourmusiclibrary.RAM-AboboRAMamizikrasinbandfoundedbyRichardMoorsenamedafterhisinitialscombinescontemporarydancesoundsandtraditionalHaitianmusic.Abobowasreleasedintheearly1990sontheCaveWalllabel.ThesingleIboLeleDreamsComeTruefromthisalbumwasincludedonthesoundtrackofthe1993moviePhiladelphiastarringTomHanksandDenzelWashington.ThemusicMoorsewritesandperformsisinspiredbytraditionalvodoufolkmusicandincorporatesthepetwodrumsandrarahornsusedinvoodooceremonies.RichardMorsebecamesoinvolvedinthevoodooreligionthroughhismusicthathewasinitiatedasahounganorvoodoopriestin2002.DescribingaRAMconcertMorseexplainsYesyoumightseeourdancersgointoatrance.Somegetpossessedbytheloastotherhythmofthedrumsbutitsanaturalstatewhenithappens.Youcantfakeit. 68KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureBaronSAMEDIBaronSamediTheMasteroftheDeadinVoodoooccupiesapopularplaceastheGuardianofcemetriesandthespiritresponsibleforanindividualstransportationtotheunderworld.ALoaoftheDead KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201569kreolCultureThereligionofvoodooispractisedbyindividualsaroundtheglobewithareachthatmatchesWesternreligionssuchasChristianity.Voodooisamisunderstoodreligionthatisoftenviewedaspurelyblackmagic.Howeverjustlikeotherreligionsvoodoohasauniquesetofbeliefsanditsowndeities.InvoodooGodsarereferredtoasloas.OneofthemoreprevalentloasinHaitianvoodooisBaronSamedi.HefillsavitalroleinHaitianvoodooasthemasterofthedeadusheringthenewlydeceasedintotheafterlife.WhoisBaronSamediInHaitianvoodooBaronSamediistheheadoftheGuedefamilyofloa.HisnameisoftentranslatedasBaronSaturdayBaronSamdiBawonSamediorBawonSanmdi.ThelastnameofSaturdaycomesfromtheFrenchtranslationofSamedi.BaronleadstheGuedefamilyagroupofloaswithstronglinkstomagicancestorworshipanddeath.TheloasinthefamilyconsistprimarilyoflesserspiritsdressthesameasBaronhaverudeevencrudeattitudesbutlackthecharmoftheirmaster.BaronisportrayedinHaitianvoodoowearingatophatblacktuxedodarkglassesandcottonplugsinhisnostrils.HisimageisoftensaidtoresemblethatofacorpsethathasbeendressedandpreparedforburialintraditionalHaitianmanner.Hisfaceissaidtoresembleaskullandheusesanasalvoice.BaronSamedisBehaviourBaronspendsthemajorityofhistimeintheinvisiblerealmofHaitianvoodoospirits.Hisbehaviourisdescribedasoutrageous.Heisknowntospendhistimedrinkingrumandsmokingcigarsswearingprofuselyandmakingfilthyjokestotheotherloas.TheotherspiritsintheGuedefamilyaresaidtobehaveinthesamemannerwithoutthesuaveabilityofBaronSamedi.TheBaronneedsthatsuavenaturebecauseheisbelievedtochasemortalwomendespitebeingmarriedtotheloaMamanBrigitte.Baronstimeisspentlingeringatthecrossroadsoflifeanddeathinthehumanworld.WhensomeonediesBaronissaidtodigtheirgraveandmeettheirsoulasitrisesfromthegrave.Heguidesthemintotheunderworld.OnlyBaronSamedihasthepowertoacceptanindividualintotheworldofthedead.ItisalsosaidthatBaronensuresthatallthosewhohavediedrotinthegroundastheyshouldensuringthatnosoulcancomebackasabrainlesszombie.Hewilldemandpaymentforthisactwhichvariesdependinguponhismoodatthetime.Onmanyoccasionsheiscontenttoacceptgiftsofcigarsrumblackcoffeeorgrilledpeanuts.Hemayaskothersoulstocontinuewearingblackwhiteandorpurple.MasteroftheDeadGiverofLifeBaronSamediastheheadoftheGuedefamilythegroupofloasthatcontrollifeanddeath.Thispowerfulfamilyofspiritspossessesnumerousabilities.Baronisalsoagiveroflifewhoissaidtopossessthepowertocureanymortalofadiseaseorwoundprovidedhebelievesitisworthwhiletosavethatindividual.Baronevenhasthepowertoovercomevoodoohexesandcurses.Anindividualwhoiscursedbyahexorotherblackmagicisnotguaranteeddeathifherefusestodigtheirgrave.AstheMasterofthedeadandguardianofcemeteriesnooneisdeaduntilBarondigstheirgravesandushersthemintotheunderworld.Inthismannerhecangivelifebypreventingdeath.TheGuedeFamilyBaronSamediandtheotherspiritsoftheGuedefamilyserveasconstantremindersofdeathsroleinthisworld.Thespiritsofthefamilyallusefoullanguageandbehaveinaraucousmanner.Baronandtheotherspiritsnolongerheedtherulesandregulationsofthelivingremindingeveryonethatdeathisaconstantthatwillbedealtwithbyall.AseveryoneisboundtopassintodeaththebehaviouroftheGuedefamilyremindsthelivingtoenjoythebenefitsofthemortalworldwhiletheystilloccupythatrealm.CeremoniesinHaitianvoodoothatinvokethespiritsoftheGuedefamilyoftenbecomeeroticandcrudewithparticipantsdrinkingdancingandcelebratingwithrecklessabandon.TheGuedefamilyisthelargestfamilyofloainvoodoobutisfarfromthemosthighlyregardedspiritsinvoodoo.LikeallloainvoodoothespiritsoftheGuedefamilyoccupyaplacebelowthesupremespiritofvoodoo.LoaStructureinVoodooThosewhopractiseHaitianvoodoobelieveinadistantandunknowablecreatorGodorloa.ThisloaisknownasBondyeorBonDieu.TheliteraltranslationofthisnamemeansGoodGod.BonDieudoesnotintercedeintheaffairsofthelivingwhichiswhyvoodooistsdirecttheirworshiptowardthespiritsthataresubservienttoBonDieu.Eachofthesesubservientspiritsorloasisresponsibleforaparticularaspectoflife.ItisthisrealmthattheGuedefamilyandBaronSamedioccupyastheMastersofthedead.Everyloaexhibitsapersonalitythatisrepresentativeoftheaspectoflifetheyshoulddepict.AstheMasterofthedeadBaronSamedisrecklessbehaviourcarousingdrinkingandswearingareallsymbolicofafamilyofspiritsthathavealreadylivedanddied.Thesespiritshavenothinglefttofear.OPPOSITEGEOFFREYHOLDERASBARONSAMEDIINLIVEANDLETDIE1973.PHOTOWENN 70KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCulturebyIanHancockTheAfro-SeminolesPartIIThesableslavefromGeorgiasutmostboundsEscapesforlifeintotheGreatWahooHerehehasleftafarthesavagehoundsAndhumanhuntersthatdidlatepursueThereinthehommockdarklyhidfromviewHiswretchedlimbsarestretchedawhiletorestTillsomekindSeminoleshallguidehimthroTowherebyhoundnorhuntermoredistrestHeinaowryhomeshallbetheRedmansguest.AlberyA.WhitmanTwasintasSeminolesstanzaV.CreolesinTEXASThelateLennyBruce196728referredtoTherealfifthcolumntheSeminolesbutwhatevermilitarycontributiontheancestorsofthemodernSeminolepopulationmadeanditwasasignificantoneitmustnowremaininhistory.TodaythedescendantsoftheSeminoleScoutslivepeacefullyinsouthwestTexasandinnorth-easternMexicowiththeirphotographsandmemoriesandtheirlanguagewhichuntilitsexistencewasrevealedtothiswriterthroughhispriorknowledgeofGullahandofrelatedCreolesinAfricaandtheCaribbeanremainedasecrettotheoutsideworldeventothenon-SeminolepopulationofBrackettvilleseeHancock1989.ButdespiteitscontinuinguseamongitsoldestgenerationofspeakerstodayMay2014thelanguagehasnotbeenpassedontothegenerationswhohavefollowedandalmostcertainlyitwillnotsurvivelongintothepresentmillennium.StillCreolelanguageshavearemarkabletenacityoftheirownandperhapsthispredictionisprematurecertainly KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201571kreolCulturewithorwithoutthelanguageoftheirforefatherstheBlackSeminolesandtheirlegendsandtheirheroeswillalwaysbeapartofthetrueheritageofthegreatstateofTexas.ThelanguageoftheAfro-SeminolesisanEnglish-lexifierCreolewhoseoriginsgobacktothewestcoastofAfrica.ItcontinuestobespokenbyadwindlingelderlypopulationoffewerthanthreehundredinsouthTexascentralOklahomaandnorthernMexico1itiscalledSeminoleshim-i-no-liintheBrackettvilleTexascommunityandMaskogointhesistercommunityinNacimientoCoahuila.TheBlackSeminolesseparationfromFloridaandtheirmigrationWestfollowedthatterritoryssaletotheUnitedStatesin1821whenitbecamepartoftheUnion.MostofitslivingspeakersinTexaswerebornintheclosedenvironmentoftheFortClarkIndianReservation.Since1917theirfamilieshavebeenlivinginthetownacrossHighway90inclosecontactwithotherAmericansandfewpeopleyoungerthanaboutsixtyfivearefluentinthelanguage.TheexistenceoftheSeminoleslanguagewaskeptfromoutsidersuntil1976.JoeDillardwhoseBlackEnglishwasformanyyearsthestandardworkonAfrican-Americanspeechreportedthathisfield-triptoBrackettvilletendedtoconfirmthenotionthatthedialectoftheBlackadultsisessentiallythatofBlackEnglisheverywhereintheUnitedStates1972182.AndKennethWigginsPorterwhohadsurelyworkedmorecloselywiththepeopleoveraperiodofthirtyormoreyearsthananyotheroutsiderexpressedembarrassmentandsurpriseathavingworkedwiththeSeminolesforsolongwithouteverhavinglearnedoftheirlanguagepersonalcommunicationJuly1976.HehadearliercalledtheirspeechperfectlyunderstandableEnglishHaynes19763.LearningaboutSeminoleMyownknowledgeoftheexistenceofthelanguagebeganasahunch.In1975ImetagraduatestudentatmyuniversitywhowaswritingathesisonTexasmilitaryhistory.HetoldmethathehadvisitedBrackettvilleinordertotape-recordaninterviewwithamanaBlackSeminolewhosefatherhadservedasascoutfortheTexasRangersattheturnofthe20thcentury.IhadneverheardofBlackSeminolesbelievinglikemostpeoplestilldothatSeminoleswereNativeAmericansandthattheylivedinFlorida.AssumingthatconnectionwithFloridamycuriosityledmetotheworksofArthurWigginsPorterespeciallyPorter1971whichprovidedmuchofthehistoryoutlinedhere.ThefactthattheBlackSeminoleswereescapeesfromtheCarolinaandGeorgiaplantationssuggestedthepossibilitythattheymightbespeakersofSeaIslandsCreolei.e.GullahorGeecheeandthatperhapstheyhadbroughtitwiththemontheirjourneywest.HekindlyallowedmetomakeacopyofhistapeanditwasclearfromlisteningtothemanbeinginterviewedwhosenamewasCaesarDanielsthattherewasinterferenceinhisEnglishfromanothersystemwhichIrecognisedasCreoleforexamplehemorethanonceusedtheCreoleplural-markerdemthesoldierdem.IpublishedapaperbasedonthattapebeforedecidingtovisitBrackettvilleformyselfthefollowingyearHancock1975.Inthesummerof1976IdrovetoBrackettvillecalledjustBrackettlocallywhichislocatedsomethirtymilesfromtheMexicanborderonHighway90.Iwentstraighttothetownhallseekinginformation.IaskedaboutlanguageandwastoldthattheSeminolesdidnthavetheirownthattheyspokeEnglishandsomeofthemspokeSpanishtoosincetheyworkedonthesurroundingranches.IgotthesameansweragainatthetownsonlyliquorstorewhereIwastoldtogoafewblocksdowntoDimerysABOVEBORNIN1887INTHESEMINOLEINDIANVILLAGENEARFORTCLARKJEFFERSONENLISTEDINTHEREGULARARMYANDSERVEDASABUFFALOSOLDIERINTHE10THCAVALRY.IN1905HEJOINEDTHESCOUTSATFORTCLARKSERVINGUNTILHISUNITWASDISBANDED.HETHENRETURNEDTOTHE10THCAVALRYFORSERVICEINTHEWORLDWAR.IMAGECOURTESYOFWILLIAMWARRIOR. 72KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureBarasocialcentrealongHighway90frequentedbytheSeminoles.HerenotknowingthatmyvisitwasalreadyexpectedthankstoaquickphonecallIcasuallyleduptothetopicoflanguagewiththeladystandingbehindthebarMrs.Lilly-MaeDimerysadlynolongerwithus.IwasagaintoldthattherewasnospecialSeminolelanguage.IdecidedatthatpointtosaysomethinginGullahwithwhichIwasalreadyfamiliartoseewhetheritwouldelicitaresponseIreasonedthatifIsoundedlikealunaticitwouldntreallymatterbecauseIdbegoneforgoodandalltheydrememberwouldbeanoutsiderwhoshoweduponedaybabblingnonsense.SoinmybestapproximationofthatlanguageIaskedIsitreallytruethatyoudonthaveyourownwayofspeakingamongyourselvesduhchruefuhchruesehhunnuhnuhhahunnuhownwayfuhtalkmunksallahunnuhorsomethingtothateffect.InstantlyMs.DimerysresponsewastosetdownhertraypointatmeandtellmetowaitrightwhereIwas.Thebarhadbecomecompletelyquiet.Thepoolplayersstoppedtheirgameandstoodwatchingholdingtheircues.ShegotonthephoneandwithinminutesagrimlookingladycamestridinginandIwasaskedtorepeattoherwhatIdjustsaid.ItwasthelateMs.CharlesEmilyWilsonwhoatthattimewasthecommunitysschoolteacherandhistorian.ShepausedforafewsecondsglaringatmethencamebackwithalongresponseinCreolethatIunderstoodperfectly.Wecontinuedlikethatforawhileandsheaskedmetocometoacommunitymeetinglaterthateveningbecauseshesaidtherewouldbepeopletherewhodbeveryinterestedtomeetme.IlearnedlaterthatbecausetheSeminoleshadbeenisolatedforsolongtheywerequiteunawarethatCreolelanguagesverymuchliketheirownwerespokenelsewhereintheworldbymillionsofpeople.UnderstandablytheywerepuzzledastohowIasanoutsiderwouldhaveknowntheirlanguage.InsubsequentvisitsovertheyearsIhavetakenalongJamaicanandSierraLeoneanfriendsandin1992IarrangedfortheBrackettvilleSeminolestomeetinGeorgiaandtalktotheSeaIslandersforthefirsttimeinperhapsmorethantwocenturies.TheircommentwasthattheysoundedasthoughtheyweretryingtospeakSeminolebutwerenotgettingitquiterightthatitsoundedtooEnglish.Inthatsameyearandagainin1993IwentwiththeTexasSeminolestoparticipateintheSmithsonianInstitutionsFolkLifeMaroonFestivalontheMallinWashingtonDC.InfactAfro-SeminoleCreoleisnotthesameasSeaIslandsCreolebutthetwoarecloselyrelatedanddescendfromthesameearlierparentCreole.CoastalGullahhasincreasinglymetropolitanizedundertheinfluenceoftheEnglishthatsurroundsit.Afro-SeminoleCreoleismoreliketheGeorgiaSeaIslandsGullahfoundinthewritingsofJones1888thanitisintheSouthCarolinatextspublishedbyGonzales1922.BecauseoftheindependenceoftheAfro-SeminolesandtheirearliergeographicalandculturalisolationfromthelargersocietytheirlanguagehaspreservedfarmoreofitsoriginalcharacterthanhasSeaIslandsCreole.IthasundergonefarlessAnglicizinginfluencebeingspokenformuchofitsexistenceintheenvironmentsofSpanishandvariousNativeAmericanlanguages.SeaIslandsCreoletoohasAfricaninfluencesnotfoundinSeminoletraceabletotheinfluxofespeciallySierraLeoneanpeopleswhowerebroughtintoGeorgiaandCarolinaaftertheancestorsoftheSeminoleshadleftthatareaandmovedintoFlorida.NeitherthenamesGullahorGeecheeareknownintheSeminolecommunitybothofthembeinglabelsprobablytraceabletopeoplesfromtheSierraLeoneandLiberiaareatheGolaandtheKiji.UnlikeSeaIslandsGullahwhoseconservativeformsarebecominglostduetoAnglicizationSeminoleisdisappearingbecauseitisnotbeingtransmittedtosubsequentgenerations.NorwillitsspeakersrevealtheirknowledgeofSeminoletocasualoutsideenquiryitisaveryprivatelanguage.WhilestandingbehindabenchinthecemeteryatadedicationceremonysometimeagoIheardaladysomedistanceawayhailingafriendwhowassittingrightinfrontofmeinEnglish.WhenshereachedhershestoopedtokisshercheekandrepeatedthegreetinginherearthistimeinSeminole.Theoldestfluentspeakersarenowintheirseventiesandwhileyoungerpeoplecanunderstandmuchofittheycannotreplyinthesamelanguage.Childrencanneitherspeaknorunderstandit.Stillitcontinuestobespoken.ThatSuzanneRomaineshouldclaim2001v160thatthelanguageisextinctispuzzlingsinceshehasnotevervisitedthecommunityandcouldhaveonlyreliedonmyownpublicationsforherinformationaboutAfro-SeminoleCreole.InfluencefromEnglishisevidentintheTexascommunitythoughnotinNacimientowhereSpanishisnowthemainlanguageofthevillage.ButmoreAfricanwordsarerememberedandusedthereandolderpronunciationsofsomeitemssuchaschoo-ehspillnowtrowwaythrowawayinBrackettvilleandthenameofthelanguageitself.Inbothcommunitiesspeakersclaimthattheirparentsandgrandparentsspokeanevenmoreremotevarietywhicheventheyhadtroubleunderstanding.ThereisongoingdiscussionofseekingfundingtoestablishanannualsummerschoolinBrackettvilleinordertoteachthelanguageandhistorytothepresentgeneration. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201573kreolCultureFeaturesoftheLanguageAfro-SeminoleCreolecontainsaboutfortywordsofAfricanprovenancesomehalfofwhicharetraceabletoKiKongoKiMbunduabout41oftheslavesbroughtintoCarolinawerefromthispartofAfricaandthebalancetolanguagesoftheGuineaCoast.OntheotherhandithasanumberofwordsofAmericanIndianandSpanishoriginnotfoundinSeaIslandsCreole.SomeexampleswithmatchesinBantuareoolahbedbugpingycookingpotcootiestuntedpigteemuhdigaholezoondooahammer.FromGoldCoastlanguagesareCuffymalegivennameCudjomalegivennamekunkieatamalandfromthelanguagesofUpperGuineathereareboontuhbuttockschikka-bodeteeter-tottertabbymuddaubchooklahgirlfriendninnybreasts.TheEnglishitemsmatchinthemainthosefoundinotherAnglophoneAtlanticCreolespointingtobothplaceSouthwesternEnglandandtimethe18thcentury.Fromthesouth-westernEnglishdialectsthereareweekadayweekdaymolefontanelleyeddyhearleffleavebrokebreaklossloseeesyeastandoodwood.FromScottishEnglishdialectstherearepitputsnootsnoutwurrumwormgraytuhgrateandbreshbrush.Palatalizationofinitialvelarsinsuchwordsasgyalgyaadngyaalickyandleaswellasthearticulationofasainsuchwordsasliyernizespilejineandpiznpointto18thcenturyEnglishphonology.FromSpanishcomebanyuhwashkwahahmakecheesematattygrindstonesoakettuhmudbeeoleenviolincalpinterowoodpeckertreegoricehuckleadobehut.AndfromIndianlanguagessuffkicornporridgestammalgroundcornpoleyjohominyandpolijoteeacorn-baseddrink.TherearewordsforwhichnoetymologyhavesofarbeenfoundsuchasbabbacarryonthebackorskiffyvaginathoughSierraLeoneKriohasbambacarryonthebackandBahamianCreolehasskiffyoungwoman.SimilaritieswithotherCreolesIthasbeenarguedbyHaynesthatSeminoleisnotaCreoleatallHaynes1976byLeapthatitisIndianEnglishreferredtoinHaynesop.cit.andbyDrechsel1976thatitisrelexifiedMobilianYamtheChoctaw-basedpidginreferredtoinPartIandwhobelievedthatitwasaproductoflocaloriginanddevelopmentandnottheresultofdiffusionfromacommonAnglophoneCreolebase.ItisaCreoleandpredictablymostlikeSeaIslandsGullah.ItdiffersfromthatlanguageinanumberofwaysprobablyduetoretentionoffeatureslostorobsolescentinthelatterwherethepostnominalpluraldemforexamplenowfunctionsasanCo.markeronlyJohndemJohnandhisfamilygroupbutadditionallyinSeminolebookdembooks.EarlySeaIslandstextsshownoasapreverbalnegatorandthisistheonlymeansofnegatinginSeminoleEnuhshemhedidntseeher.SeaIslandsCreolenowgenerallynegateswithainteainshum.ThishasnthappenedinSeminolesincethefuturemarkerhereisengwengwinegoing.SimilarlynuhhasntbecomeaininJamaicanCreoleeitherasithasinTrinidadandelsewherebecauseinJamaicanthepasttensewordbenbininSeminolehasbecomeen.AsinarchaicJamaicanCreoletherearetheformswarrahanddarrahforwhatandthat.LiketheCaribbeanbutnottheAfricananglophoneCreolesSeminolehastheconstructionAhgiumworruhfuhejrinkIgavehimwaterforhimtodrinkbutcf.KrioAhgiamwattafohlehedrink.AtlanticanglophonelexicalitemswidelyfoundinrelatedCreolesincludelukkalikeasnuffplentyofnummuhonlyshoesshoeyazeearteettoothwissehwheredo-moutdoorwaybig-yieenviouscut-yiegiveaglanceofangeryie-worruhtearsmoonmensesday-cleandaybreakhanarmandhandfootlegandfoot.ABOVETHECOASTOFSOUTHCAROLINAGEORGIAANDFLORIDAISHOMETOSEAISLANDS 74KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureGrammar1.NounsandPronounsNounsdontusuallychangeforpluralbyaddingan-sattheendasinEnglishafewwordslikedayandtingsometimestakeafinal-sandthewordchilehasitsownpluralchirrenbuttheusualwaytoshowthattheresmorethanoneofanythingistofollowthewordwithdemDeman-demweybinnuhwuckdeyThemenwhowereworkingthereAhentalktuhmefriendemImgoingtotalktomyfriendsIftheresanumberbeforethenounthenthedemisntnecessaryFouhmefrienFourofmyfriendsThesameworddemwhenplacedaftersomeonesnamemeansthatpersonandhisfamilyorgroupoffriendsWeduhgwensiddunglongwitLouis-demWeregoingtositwithLouisandhisfamilyorLouisandhisgroupKay-Kay-demdoneeatupallwetettuhpoonKay-KayandherfriendshaveeatenalloursweetpotatopuddingPossessionisshownbyputtingthewordforwhatisownedorpossesseddirectlyaftertheownerwithoutanapostrophe-sPompeydahdyPompeysfatherJohnHorsehossJohnHorseshorseMeahntyneighbuhToyotamyauntsneighboursToyotaSomegroupsofwordsthatcangobeforenounsareaDemonstrativesdisthisdish-yuhthisclosebydathatdatwhenemphaticdarrathatdemthosedem-yuhtheseyanduhthosefarawaybAdjectiveserreheitherMenuhlikeerrehonenerrehnotanyNerrehpeepilnuhbindeyduhdeschoolyaadlillylittlehongryhungrystate-raisenon-SeminolehastyagitatednervousjelliejealouscPossessivepronounsmemuhmymyyouyuhhunnuhyousingularehisheritshimhisheritsemphaticweourhunnuhyallyourdemtheirHunnuhisonlyapluralpronouninmostrelatedcreolesbutthisisnotthecaseinSeminole.Possessivepronounsanddemonstrativesgobeforeadjectives.IfthepossessivepronouncomesattheendofasentenceitisfollowedbyownDarra-deycahduhweownThatcarisoursEnuhlooklukkuheownItdoesntlooklikehishersThesamewordowncangowithafewotherwordstooDuhwho-datownWhoseisitDishyuhmusbesomebawdyownThismustbesomebodysdArticlesOneuhaanDethesingularDemdethepluralSomesomePronounsthatgobeforenounspossessivepronounshavealreadybeenlistedatcabove.Otherkindsofpronounsaretheonesthatgoinfrontofaverbsubjectpronounsandthosewhichgoafteraverbobjectpronouns.Theyhavealmostthesameformasthepossessivepronouns KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201575kreolCultureaSubjectpronounsAhmeIYouhunnuhyousingularEhimhesheitWeweHunnuhyallyou-allDemtheyThewordforIisnearlyalwaysAhbutmeissometimesusedinemphaticconstructionsandbeforenegativenuhespeciallyintheexpressionmenuhknowIdontknow.Eisalsothecommonestwordforheorsheoritbuthimisusedforemphasisveryfrequently.bObjectpronounsMemeYouhunnuhyouUmrumhimheritWeusHunnuhyallyou-allDemthemTheformofummwithanri.erumrmisonlyusedwhenthewordbeforeitendsincertainvowelsthisisthesameinWestAfricanKrioandinSeaIslandsGullahGamgmgiumtuhrumGiveittoherAhcyanmembuhrumIcantrememberit2.VerbsInEnglishthedifferentformsofaverbareshownbyaddingdifferentendingstoite.g.walkwalkswalkedwalking.InSeminoletheSeaIslandsGullahformoftheverbdoesntchangelikethis.Insteadofaddingendingstoitseparatewordsareplacedinfrontofit.Thisistypicalofcreolelanguageseverywhere.IncreolesandthereforeinSeminolemoreimportanceisattachedtothenatureofsomethinghappeningthantotheactualtimeithappens.InSeminoletherearetwowordstoexpressthenatureoftheactioncalleditsaspectandtwowordstoexpressthetimeoftheactionitstense.Thesecanbecombinedwitheachothertomakemorecomplicatedstructures.TheaspectwordsareDuhuhindicatingthatactionisinprogressorhappensusuallyorhabituallyandDoneindicatingthatanactioniscompleted.Uhistheformofduhthatisusedafterthetensewordbinlistedbelowbinnuhbinduh.Itisimportanttorememberthatthesehavenoreferencetotime.Duhcanbeusedwiththetensewordstoindicatecontinuousactioninthepastorfutureanddonecanrefertosomethingthatwillbecompletedatsometimeinthefuturethathasntevenbegunyetorelsewascompletedbeforesometimeinthepastalsobybeingusedwiththetensewords.ThetensewordsareBinindicatingactionbeforenowandEngwenindicatingactioninthefuture.Ifactionnowi.e.inthepresentisexpresseditisdonesowithduhsinceifthetimeoftheactionisnowthatactionmustbeintheprocessofhappening.Whentheverbaloneisusedthetimeitreferstoispast.Thisisnttrueofsomeverbswhichrefertoactionswhichseemtobeindependentoftimelikeknoworwant.ThedifferentcombinationsandmeaningsofthesecanbeunderstoodmoreeasilyinthefollowingexamplesaWithnotenseoraspectwordsAhchryfuhdoumItriedtodoitAhtelldemandismorninItoldthemanthismorningMollyjoogmegoodwitepinMollystuckmehardwithherpinAhknowhowfuhshetumIknowhowtoshutitWuhelseyuhwanWhatelsedoyouwantWhentheverbalonecomesafterthewordfuhandthereisnosubjectpronounthefuhmeansto 76KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureAhbintoobexfuhIwastooangrytospeaktalktuhrumtoherWhenasubjectpronouncomesbeforefuhandaverbthenfuhmeansmustorshouldAhfuhtalktuhrumIshouldtalktoherAhbinfuhtalktuhrumIshouldhavetalkedtoherHunnuhnuhfuhjrinkYoumustntdrinkthatdaworruhwaterbWithbinMeckebinchurrayWhydidhethrowitumawayDembinnyusfuhTheyusedtospeaktalkSimanoleSeminoleDembinpitedahdyTheyputhisfathereenjailinjailThelastsentencewouldalsobethetranslationofhisfatherwasputinjailbecausethereisnopassiveinSeminoleDemwalemeIwasbeatentheybeatmeDemtiefecarhercargotstolentheystolehercarcWithenThefuturewordenhasseveralotherformssuchasgwengwineennuhgwunnuhandsoon.Thepronunciationwithouttheg-seemstobethemostcommonandprobablyexistedinthecreolesfromveryearlyon.InTrinidadCreolethefuturewordgohasanotherformohandinSaramaccanCreolespokeninSouthAmericatheonlyformnowisoh.EveninAmericanBlackEnglishImgonnadoithasthevariantpronunciationImonnadoitandevenImuhdoit.HunnuhenfinwedehYouwillfindusthereDesperrit-demenThespiritswillcarrykyahyouwayyouoffHunnuhgwineYou-allwilldietoodeadtoodWithduhAhduhchryfuhIamtryingtodoitdoumMollyduhcratchMollyisscratchingheresofootsorelegAhfuhduhtalkIshouldbetalkingtuhrumtoherDemduhjoukumTheyreteasinghimHimduhgotuhschoolHeisgoingtoschoolNoticethatinthelastexampleheisgoingtoschoolcanhavetwodifferentmeaningasinEnglish.ItcanbetheanswertowhereisthatboyonhiswaytonowandalsotowhatishedoingthesedaysSomecreolelanguageshavedifferentconstructionsforeachofthese.eWithdoneYoudonebruckumyouvereallybrokenfuhchruenowitnowAhdonetiyahfuhreadIhavebecometiredofreadingSomeverbsusedwithdonecanbetranslatedwithbecomeaswellwhenthereisnoobjectfollowingEdonefixIthasbecomefixedEdonecookIthasbecomecookedComparethesewithEdonefixumHehasfixeditEdonecookdapokeHehascookedthatporkfBinwithdoneandduhBinduhisusuallypronouncedbinnuhinordinaryspeechAllmepeepilbinnuhAllmypeopleusedtalkumtospeakitDembinnuhshoutTheyweresingingineendechuchthechurchAhbindoneshetIhadshutitsotightlyumsuhtightthatItellahcouldnopincouldntopenitagainumgenEbindonetellmeShehadtoldmeaboutboutyoubefoyoubeforeAhbindoneduhIhadbeenwalkingwalkchreehourforthreebefoahreachdehhoursbeforeIreachedtheregEnwithdoneandduhBydistimetumorraBythistimetomorrowhunnuhendonespenyoullhavespenttwowholetwowholeweekyuhweekshere KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201577kreolCultureAhhopesehhunnuhIhopeyoullhavestoppedendoneduhmeckalldamakingallthatnoisenizeeenawhileinawhileHunnuhenuhseemeYoullbeseeingmenuhworrydontworryDuhbecomesuhaftereninthesamewayasitdoesafterbin.Insloworcarefulspeechitstaysasduh.hSomeotherverbsSeminolehastakensomeotherauxiliariesfromEnglish.ThesearemustcouldandwouldandtheircombinationsmussacouldaandwouldaAhnuhbinknowsehIdidntknowIcouldahcoulddoumdoitAhshonuffwouldlikeIdsureenoughliketofuhgotoogotooAhcouldatellyouIcouldhaveeasilytolddateasyyouthatEwouldaspileItwouldreallyfuhchruehavespoiledTwootherverbswithcharacteristicpronunciationsinSeminolearehahaveandlehletDemchillennuhhaThosechildrenhavenuttinfuhdonothingtodoEhafuhgitbackShehastogetbackfuhschooltoschoolLehwegobubbuhLetsgosonnyYounuhbinhafuhYoudidnthavetoletlamgohimgoAhnenlehhunnuheenImnotgoingtoletyouin3.TheBEverbBeherecoversallthedifferentformsofthatverbisamarewaswerebeingandsoon.InSeminoletherearedifferentwaysofsayingthis.aBebetweennounsisduhinthepresenttensegwenbeinthefutureandbinnuhinthepastHimduhdeodesoneHestheoldestonearounyeharoundhereMr.ToughtrybinMr.ToughtrywasaduhlyerlawyerEbinwanfuhbelyerHewantedtobealawyerDuhdaeenbeThatswhathesgoingtobeDuhisalsousedasahighlighterwhencertainwordsinasentenceneedtobeemphasized.ItthiscasetheycomeatthebeginningWewantalktuhJohnWewanttospeaktoJohnDuhJohnwewanItsJohnwewanttotalktuhtalktoAlsowithquestionwordsDuhwissehhunnuhWhereareyougoingduhgwineDuhwho-datbincallWhocalledmynamemenameDuhwarruheneedWhatdoessheneedDuhwho-datduhWhostheredeydehDuhwuhdembinWhatdidtheytellyoutellhunnuhUnlikeotherEnglish-lexifiercreolesneitherSeaIslandsGullahnorSeminolewillallowforverbstobebroughtforwardinthesamewaybothWestAfricanKrioandJamaicanCreolecansayduhbuyyoubuyimorduhtiefyoutiefimdidyoubuyitordidyoustealitbutinSeminoleitwouldhavetobeyoubuyumoryoutiefumbBeinthesenseofexistorbeinaplacelikeSpanishestarisdeyHunnuhbookdemdeyYourbooksareonpundacheerthatchairMuskittuhbindeyMosquitoeswereebbaweyeverywhereAhendeyeenIllbeinmyroommeroomcBeinfrontofadjectivesisnttranslatedatallinSeminole.WhereasinEnglishyouwouldhavetosayIamhungrytheywerenoisyandsoonthisisleftoutinSeminole.Thatisbecauseadjectivesarereallyakindofverb.4.AdjectivesThesebehavejustlikeverbsexceptthatwithoutatenseoraspectmarkertheystillcanhaveapresenttenseItshardtothinkofadjectiveshavingtensesbutitsonewaytoexplainthedifferencebetweendishyuhleafyalluhanddishyuhleafduhyalluhthefirstonemeansthisleafisyellowakindofpermanentstatewhichincludesthepresentsinceitisyellowwhileyoumaketheobservation 78KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureaboutitthesecondonehasduhwhichistheaspectwordforactioninprogresssoitwouldmeanthisleafisgettingyelloworthisleafisyellowing.AdjectivescanbeusedwiththeothertenseandaspectmarkerstoojustlikeverbsDishyuhleafenyalluhThisleafwillbeyellowDishyuhleafennuhThisleafisgoingtoyalluhturnyellowDishyuhleafbinyalluhThisleafwasyellowDishyuhleafbinnuhThisleafwasturningyalluhyellowDishyuhleafdoneyalluhThisleafhasturnedyellowandsoon.Adjectivesaremadecomparativebyusingthewordmoinfrontofthemoriftheyarejustshortwordsbyadding-uhtothem.Sometimesbothmoand-uhareusedtogether.ThewordforthanisnuhYouogliuhnuhmeYoureuglierthanIamYoumoogliuhnuhmeYoureuglierthanIamYoumotankfulnuhmeYouremorethankfulthanIamTheyaremadesuperlativebyusingthewordmosinfrontofthemoriftheyarejustshortwordsbyadding-istotheend.Sometimesbothmosand-isareusedtogetherYouduhdeodisYouretheoldestwomanoomanYouduhdemosodisYouretheoldestwomanoomanYouduhdemosYourethemosttankfulmanthankfulman5.NegativesTherearemanyexamplesofnegativesentencesintheearlierpages.UsuallythisismadebyputtingnuhornoornahrightafterthesubjectnounorpronounMenuhsabbyumIdontknowhimMeonclenuhknowMyuncledoesntknowMeahntynuhbinwanMyauntdidntwantfuhknowtoknowEnahnentellumAndImnotgoingtotellherWhenasentencehastwopartsi.e.asubjectandanobjectbotharemadenegativesoitiscorrectSeminolegrammartosaywenuhseenuhbawdyenwenuhbineatnuttinwedidntseeanyoneandwedidnteatanything.Theverbscouldwouldcouldawouldaandkincandonthavenegativeswithnuhthenegativeformsoftheseverbsarecouldnwouldncouldnawouldnaandcahnorcyahn.TheaspectmarkerdonewhenmadenegativeisnotnuhdonebutnabbuhEnabbuhshemhehadntseenher.6.JoiningsentencesWordsandsentencescanbejoinedtogetherindifferentwaystomakelongermorecomplicatedconstructions.Sometimestwocompletesententescanbeputside-by-sidewithajoiningwordsometimesasentencecanbeputinsideanothersentenceandsometimesasentencecanbeputafteranounoraverb.Whensentencesarejoinedinanyofthesewaystheyneedjoiningwords.SomeoftheseareforaAsentencefollowinganothersentenceMeduhgwineenIamgoingandyoumustyoufuhtayyuhstayhereJosiewanleffumJosiewantstoleaveitdeybuhtherebutyouwanfuhteckyouwanttotakeitumwityouwithyouAheneatnowbeenIwilleatnowsincebinyouyourenotnendeyhomegoingtobehomebefosixbeforesixEsayenuhknowShesaidshedidnthoweenfineknowhowshedroomfuheseddownfindroomtositnummuhexceptthatsheeenseddownwasgoingtositdownsomeweysomewherebFollowinganounDishuhyazeweyThisearthatthedoctordedoctorbinfixstillnuhrightfixedstillisntrightDempieceuhoodThosebitsofwoodthatweydeyonneetareunderdastoveenketchthatstovewillcatchfireefyoufireifnuhmoobeumyoudontmovethem KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201579kreolCulturecFollowingaverboradjectiveDuhchruesehIsittruethatbothmenssalltwodemandrowndrownedAhbinyeddysehIheardthatitwasalieduhlieEaxumsehduhHeaskedhimwhatiswuhyouwanitthatyouwantEgieumansuhsehHeansweredhimnuttinnothingdMoreaboutfuhTwodifferentusesofthewordfuhhavebeengivenalreadynamelyastheindicatorofaverbwhenithasnosubjecttoruntojumptoeatetc.andasawordmeaningmustorshouldwhentheverbdoeshaveasubjectImustrunImustjumpetc.fuhrunahfuhrunfuhjowmpahfuhjowmpetc.FuhcanbeusedthiswaybyitselfasintheseexamplesortogetherwithhahavetogivehaffuhAhhaffuhrun.Inthepastitisbinfuhshouldhave.Togetherwithbinbinfuhmeansshouldhaveasindembinfuhgotheyshouldhavegonebutsometimesitismistakenlyusedasthoughitmeantthesamethingasbinduhbinnuh.InsentencesofthekindsomethingforyoutoeatorasongforthemtosingwhichneedatobeforetheverbsinEnglishthereisnoneedtousefuhSometinfuhyoueatSomethingforyoutoeatOnesongfuhyousingAsongforyoutosingItisalsonotnecessarytousefuhafterwanwantAhwangoIwanttogoeDeypunandstuddehDeypunmeanstobeengagedinsomeactionasinedeypunfoolhesactingthefoolatthistime.ThewordstuddehcanalsohaveasimilarmeaningandsignifiesthattheactionoftheverbisrepetitiveorcontinuousEstuddehbinnuhwatchdegyalhewassteadilywatchingthegirl.7.AdverbsRegularadverbshavethesameformastheadjectivestheyarerelatedtoitstheirpositioninthesentencewhichmakesthemadverbsDepoodiegyalTheprettygirlisduhsingsingingDegyalduhsingThegirlissingingpoodieprettilySomeotheradverbsnotderivedfromadjectivesareHowhowMeckmeck-sowhyWissehweywhereWuh-timewinwhenTuhdaytodayTurruh-daytheotherdaySoonsoonSooneendemoninearlyinthemorningAdverbsarealsowholephraseswhichtellyouhowwhywhereorwhenBehimededoBehindthedoorTrudedo-moutThroughthedoorwayPuntopweroofOnourroofWitepent-breshWithhispaint-brushKezzebinwanfuhBecausehewantedtoNicedewinduhNearthewindow8.TagsTagsarelittlewordsyoustickontheendofasentencetogiveitaparticulartone.TwocommontagsinSeminoleareentyandnuhNuffuhpeepilbindehdeyentyPlentyofpeopleweretherewerentthereDemencomebackentyTheyllcomebackwonttheyEntycanalsocomeatthefrontofasentenceEntydemyiebinshetWerenttheireyesclosedWithnuhNuhlossumnuhDontloseitwillyouGiemenuhGiveittomewontyou 80KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolCultureDerivationofthewordSeminoleArawaksimaranSpanishcimarrnCreekIndiansimarnisimanliFrenchmarronmarronageEnglishmaroonmarronageSpanishseminolesAfro-SeminoleCreoleShiminoliEnglishSeminoleAlthoughthepopularassociationofthewordSeminoletodayiswiththeIndianpopulationinFloridaaccordingtoGiddings18583itwasfirstusedtorefertotheAfricanescapeesintothatregionandwasonlylaterappliedbytheCreekstotheIndianfugitives.SeminolehasgenerallybeensupposedtoderivefromaNativeAmericanwordcimameaningatypeofwildgrassbutmorerecentlyanotheretymologyintheArawakwordsmaranmeaningbowandarrowhasbeenproposedbyJosArrom1986.TheIndiansthemselvespronouncedcimarrnascimalonorcimanoltransposingthemandthelhencethenameSeminolepronouncedsmnolbymostAfro-Seminolestodaybutinthemoreconservativecreoleoftheoldestspeakerspronouncedmnol.SeminoleHistoryFalselyRepresentedatFortClarkAdocumentandpictorialdisplayentitledAreaattractionsinthelobbyoftheFortClarkSpringsHotelwhichusedtobeFortClarkitselfandwhichisalsodisplayedpubliclyinthetownofBrackettvillecontainsthefollowinginformationforvisitorswhichbothdistortsandtrivializestheSeminolecontributiontoTexanhistorySEMINOLESCOUTSServingduringthefrontiererathescoutswerethedescendantsofslavesstolenfromSouthernplantationsbyFloridaSeminoles.TheU.S.Governmenthired150asscoutsfortheArmytotrailhostileIndiansoftheSouthwest.AgroupsettledinBrackettvillearoundFortClarkandtheirdescendantsremainasareafarmersandranchers.Theoldcemeteryisonacountryroadaboutthreemilessouthoftown.WhileitistruethattheancestorsoftheSeminoleswerestolenbywhitepeoplefromAfricatheywereofcoursenotstolenbyIndiansfromtheplantationsbutescapedvoluntarilytojointheminFloridathemselvesbecomingSeminolesawordsimplymeaningfugitives.AsstatedabovethenameSeminolewasinfactappliedtoAfricansmanyyearsbeforeitwasappliedtotheIndianescapees.Thefactthattheycreatedtheirownmarooni.e.non-slavesocietyiswhatmakestheSeminolesuniqueamongAfricanAmericanpopulationsintheUnitedStatesandwhatqualifiedthemtoparticipateinthe1992SmithsonianInstitutionsMaroonFestivalontheMallinWashingtonDC.NordidtheirancestorssimplysettleinBrackettvillearoundFortClarkbutwerespecificallyinvitedtoserveasscoutsfortheArmyoutofEaglePassandBrackettvillebytheU.S.Government.ReferencesArromJosJuan1986.CimarrnApuntessobresusPrimerasDocumentacionesysuProbableOrigenEdicionesFundacinGarca-ArvaloSeriemonogrficaNo.18.SantoDomingoDR.CohenJohned.1967.TheEssentialLennyBruce.NewYorkBallantineBooks.DillardJoe1972.BlackEnglishItsHistoryandUsageintheUnitedStates.NewYorkRandomHouse.DrechselEmanuel1976.PidginizationandcreolizationinNorthAmericanIndianlanguagesMobilianJargonandAfro-SeminoleCreole.UnpublishedreporttotheNationalScienceFoundation.EvansChristopher1990.AScoutsHonorTheFortWorthStarTelegramMarch25thpp.7-8.GiddingsJoshuaR.1858.TheExilesofFlorida.FollettColumbus.ReissuedbyBlackClassicPressBaltimore1997.GonzalesAmbroseE.1922.TheBlackBorderGullahStoriesoftheCarolinaCoast.ColumbiaTheStateCo.HaasMary1940.Creekvocabulary.Unpublishedmauscript.HancockIan1971.AStudyoftheSourcesandDevelopmentoftheLexiconofSierraLeoneKrio.UnpublisheddoctoraldissertationTheUniversityofLondonSchoolofOrientalandAfricanStudies.HancockIan1975.CreolefeaturesintheAfro-SeminoleSpeechofBrackettvilleTexas.CaribbeanLinguisticSocietyOccasionalPaperNo.3.HancockIan1977.FurtherObservationsonAfro-SeminoleCreole.CaribbeanLinguisticSocietyOccasionalPaperNo.7.HancockIan1980a.TheTexasSeminolesandtheirLanguage.WorkingPaperoftheAfro-AmericanStudiesandResearchCenterofTheUniversityofTexasatAustinSpringPp.vi29.HancockIan1980b.GullahinTexasinJoeDillarded.PerspectivesonAmericanEnglish.TheHagueMouton1980.Pp.305-333.HancockIan1986.OntheclassificationofAfro-SeminoleCreoleinMichaelMontgomeryandGuyBaileyeds.LanguagevarietyintheSouthPerspectivesinblackandwhite.UniversityAlabamaUniversityPressPp.85-101.HancockIan1993.MortarsandmetatesinPeterSeiteled. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201581kreolCultureFestivalofAmericanfolklife.WashingtonPublicationoftheSmithsonianInstitutionpp.59-61.HancockIan1994.ComponentialityandthecreolematrixThesouth-westEnglishcontributioninMichaelMontgomeryed.ThecrucibleofCarolinaEssaysinthedevelopmentofGullahlanguageandculture.AthensLondonUniversityofGeorgiaPresspp.94-114.HancockIan1998.HistorythroughwordsAfro-SeminolelexicographyinL.FietJ.Becerraeds.Caribbean2000IdentitiesandCultures.RockefellerFoundationPublicationUniversityofPuertoRicopp.87-104.HaynesLilith1976.CandidchimaeraTexasSeminole.TermpaperDepartmentofEnglishNewMexicoStateUniversityLasCruces.HowardRosalyn2002.BlackSeminolesintheBahamas.GainesvilleUniversityPressofFlorida.JonesCharlesC.1888.NegroMythsfromtheGeorgiaCoastToldintheVernacular.BostonNewYorkHoughtonMifflinCo.LittlefieldDanielF.1977.AfricansandSeminoles.WestportandLondonGreenwoodPress.LoughridgeR.M.1964.EnglishandMuskokeeDictionary.BaptistHomeMissionBoardOkmulgee.OpalaJoseph1980.ABriefHistoryoftheSeminoleFreedmen.OccasionalPaperNo.3oftheAfricanandAfro-AmericanStudiesandResearchCenterAustinTheUniversityofTexas.PorterKennethWiggins1947.FreedomOverMeTheStoryofJohnHorseGopherJohnca.1812-1882SeminoleNegroChiefandHisPeopleinFloridatheIndianTerritoryMexicoandTexas.Unpublishedtypescript.PorterKennethWiggins1971TheNegroontheAmericanFrontierNewYorkArnosPress.PowersBernardE.1998.AfoundingfatherandGullahcultureNationalParks72111226-29NovemberDecember1998.RomaineSuzanne2001.Afro-SeminoleCreoleinJohnAlgeoed.TheCambridgeHistoryoftheEnglishLanguage.Vol.6EnglishinNorthAmerica.NewYorkCUPp.160.SurowieckiJames2004.TheWisdomofCrowds.NewYorkAnchorBooks.WoodDavidE.1980.AGuidetotheSeminoleSettlementsatRedBaysAndros1817-1980.NassauTheBahamasGovernmentPrintingDepartment.WoodhullFrost1937TheSeminoleIndianscoutsontheborderFrontierTimes173118-127.OtherWorksontheAfro-SeminolesMuchmoreinformationmaybefoundontheInternettheplacetostartforlinksishttpwww.coax.netpeoplelwfsisca.htm.TheaddresstowritetoforinformationisTheSecretaryTheSeminoleIndianScoutCemeteryAssociationP.O.Box262BrackettvilleTX78832.BrittenThomasA.1999.ABriefHistoryoftheSeminole-NegroIndianScouts.LewistonTheMellenPress.BrownCloydeI.1999.BlackWarriorChiefsAHistoryoftheSeminoleNegroIndianScouts.FortWorthSamizdat.GuinnJeff2002.OurLandBeforeWeDieTheProudStoryoftheSeminoleNegro.NewYorkPutnam.HaennWililamF.2002.FortClarkandBrackettvilleLandofHeroes.CharlestonArcadiaPublishing.KatzWilliamL.1987.TheBlackWest.SeattleOpenHandPublishingCo.KatzWilliamL.1986.BlackIndians.NewYorkAtheneum.LittlefieldDanielF.1977.AfricansandSeminoles.WestportandLondonGreenwoodPress.McLoughlinWilliam1974.RedIndiansblackslaveryandwhiteracismAmericasslaveholdingIndiansAmericanQuarterly264367-385.McReynoldsEdwinC.1957.TheSeminoles.Norman.MulroyKevin1993.FreedomontheBorderTheSeminoleMaroonsinFloridatheIndianTerritoryCoahuilaandTexas.LubbockTexasTechUniversityPress.OpalaJosephed.2003.TheGullahConnectionTrail.HonorsProgramSpecialReportHarrisonburgJamesMadisonUniversity.PirtleCalebMichaelF.Cusack.1985.FortClarkTheLonelySentinelonTexasWesternFrontier.AustinEakinPress.PorterKennethWiggins1945.NotesontheSeminoleNegroesintheBahamasTheFloridaHistoricalQuarterly24156-60.PorterKennethWiggins1950.NegroguidesandinterpretersintheearlystagesoftheSeminoleWarTheJournalofNegroHistory352.PorterKennethWiggins1952.TheSeminoleNegro-IndianscoutsQuarterlyoftheTexasStateHistoricalAssociationJanuaryissue.PowersBernardE.1998.AfoundingfatherandGullahcultureNationalParks72111226-29NovemberDecember1998.SturtevantWilliamC.1971.CreekintoSeminoleinEleanorLeacockNancyLurieeds.NorthAmericanIndiansinHistoricalPerspectiveNewYorkRandomHouse.Pp.92-128.TwymanBruce1999.TheBlackSeminoleLegacyandNorthAmericanPolitics1693-1845.WashingtonHowardUniversityPress.WalkerJamesW.1976.TheBlackLoyalists.NewYorkAfricanaPublishingco.DalhousieUniversityPress.WhitmanAlbery1880.TwasintasSeminolesorRapeofFlorida.St.LouisMason-Jones. 82KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFashionFashiondesignrequirespassionanddesiretosucceed.GregoryandColineBaptiste-MillshaveworkedhardformorethantwodecadesnowtobuildamenswarebrandfromthegroundupBuildingaBrandfromtheGroundUpGregoryColineBAPTISTE-MILLS KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201583kreolFashionArtnomatterwhatformitcomesinrequiresasteadyhandanddeterminationinordertobecomesuccessful.Attractingtheattentionoftheworldaroundyouasanartistisnoeasytask.Ittakesacombinationofdedicationperseveranceandinspirationtobuildanartisticbrandfromthegroundup.Fashionisatrulyuniqueformofartisticexpression.Thestimulusforfashionoftencomesfromtheworldaroundthedesignerandthatindividualsdeterminationtosucceedisreflectedinthequalityanddesignofeachpiece.GregoryMillsandhiswifeColineBaptiste-MillshavebuiltthemostrecognisablefashionbrandinTrinidadTobagowithlittlemorethandeterminationandpassion.Withnoformaltrainingtheduotookafashiondreamandturneditintoarealitythatisgainingattentionaroundtheglobe.HumbleBeginningsNeitherGregorynorColinehadanyformaldesigntrainingintheiryouth.Thepairhadnothingmorethanapassionforclothingdesignandadesiretoworkwithfabrics.Beginninginthelate1980sGregorybegantoexplorehisenthusiasmforclothingdesign.Asayoungmantheonlyguidancehereceivedwasfromacquaintancesthathadattendedsecondaryschoolandpracticedtailoringskills.Duringthelate1980sandtheearly1990sthegovernmentofTrinidadTobagoworkedtoencouragecitizenstobuyclothesmadelocallywithlocalfabrics.Gregorydedicatedhimselftohoninghistailoringskillsworkingforsmallerclothingbrands.Itwasduringthisperiodhemethisfuturewife.Colinesdesireforfashionblossomedasa16-year-oldgirlattendingsecondaryschool.Colinesparentswantedhertopursueacademicsbelievingthatafutureasadoctorlawyeroraccountantwasmorereasonable.Inhersparetimeduringschoolshewouldsewtogetheruniformsandoutfitsforherclassmates.WhenGregoryandCollinemetin1987theircombinedpassionsledtothelaunchoftheirownbrand.THISPAGEMILLHOUSECOLLECTION.PHOTOSANESTABROADPHOTOGRAPHY 84KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFashionBirthofMillhouseMenswearGregorystailoringabilitiesandColineskeeneyeforfashiondesignledtothecreationofMillhouseMenswearin1997.ThecatalystfortheircompanycamefromthetailorshopofamannamedTrevorCragwell.CragwellownedashoponFrederickStreetinPortofSpainTrinidadnamedCragys.AtthetimeCragyswasTrinidadsmostprominentmenswearshopandofferedlocallymadeclothing.BeforeGregorymetColineCragyswasthebenchmarkthathesetforhisfutureendeavours.Thecleanwell-organisedshopwasthedreamthatGregoryhadhadforafutureretailoutletofhisown.Withhardworkandthebrilliantdesignsofhiswifethecouplewouldeventuallygetthere.CreatingimpressivefashiondoesntjusthappenovernightsowhatspursontheirambitionanddrivestheirsuccessInspirationatHomeAstheleaddesignerforMillhouseMenswearColineisinchargeofdevelopingthedesignsandcolourschemesforvariousfashionlinesofthecompany.BothGregoryandColinepointtotheirhomelandintheCaribbeanastheprimarysourceofinfluencefortheirdesigns.AsnativesoftheCaribbeanColinesaysthecouplearenaturallyaffectedbytheworldofcoloursathomeinTrinidad.Gregorywentsofarastosharethestoryoftheenvironmentrightoutsidetheirbackdoor.Asaperfectexampleheexcitedlytellsthetaleofabrightyellowtreethatstandsaloneonahilltopacrossfromthecoupleshome.Thatlonetreefeaturingbrightyellowflowerswheninfullbloomstandsoutatopahilldominatedbyshadesofbrownandgreen.Thatcontrastofrichcoloursissomethingthecoupletrytobringintoallofitsfashionlines.SuccesswithHardWorkThecouplemetandstartedbuildingtheMillhousebrandin1987butitwasntuntil2010thateitherofthemreceivedformaltraininginfashion.TogetherwiththeirtwoyoungsonsGregoryandColinewenttoLondonUKin2010topursueformaltraining.ColinecompletedtwoyearsofstudyingattheLondonCollegeofFashionwhileGregorygraduatedfromSavileRowAcademy.DespitetheaddedtrainingthecouplestillfindthemselvesworkingveryhardtoenabletheMillhouseMenswearbrandtocontinuetoflourish.InadditiontoherfashiondesigncommitmentsColineisanurseandworksregularlyinthatcapacitytosupportthefamily.InhersparetimeathomeshegeneratesnewfashionlinesforMillhouse.Gregoryworksonafull-timebasisatMillhouseMenswearasthecompanystailor.Hecontinuestohand-stitchmanyofthesuitsandoutfitsthatthecompanyproduces.Thoughatfirstheprimarilyrelieduponhishands70ofthetimeinhisownwordshecannowworkonsomeofthecompanysfashionlineswithasewingmachinethemajorityofthetime.StillittakesGregorynearlyafullweektocraftahandmadesuit.Whenheisworkingonthecompanysproductionsuitshecancompleteone-and-a-halfsuitseachdayworkingbyhandandwithasewingmachine.Allofthisintenseandtimeconsumingdedicationchallengesthework-lifebalanceoftheMillsfamily.GregoryandColinehavetwoyoungsonsaged16andninewhoarejustasinterestedinthesuccessofMillhouseMenswearastheirparents.GregoryandColinearedriventoprosperbecausetheyrealisetheirsuccessnowwillhelpsupporttheirboysinthefuture.Thechildrenofferahelpinghandonoccasionbuttheparentsarecarefulnottoasktoomuchoftheirsons.BothsonswillsitdownwithColineasshecreatesdesignsfornewfashionlinesbutonlytheir16-year-oldsonhastriedhishandatthefamilybusiness.Gregoryhasbeenamazedbythespeedatwhichhissonhasimprovedonhistailoringskills.StillGregoryadmitshissonwouldprefertospendtimetextingfriendsonhisphone.ThecouplemetandstartedbuildingtheMillhousebrandin1987butitwasntuntil2010thateitherofthemreceivedformaltraininginfashion.OPPOSITEPAGEMILLHOUSECOLLECTION.PHOTOSANESTABROADPHOTOGRAPHY KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201585kreolFashion 86KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFashionGrowthandFuturePotentialTheMillsshownosignofslowingdownintheirpursuitofcreatingaglobalidentityfortheirhumbleTrinidad-basedcompany.ThecouplehavedesignedandtailoredclothingforartistsincludingErykahBaduMosDefandMusiqSoulchildbuttheeverydaycollectionofclothingcreatedbyMillhouseMenswearisdesignedforprofessionalsinsearchofsmartcasualwearandeverydaybusinessapparel.Askthecouplewheretheyseethecompanyinfiveyearsandyourealisehowhumbletheduoremainstothisday.GregoryandColineeachhaveafavouritefashionlinethecompanyhasdevelopedSouthernComfortandtheIndianCollection2008respectivelybutyouwonthearthembragaboutthesuccessesofthoselines.TheIndianCollectionwonthecompanyitsfirstCaribbeanFashionAwardin2009whenitcapturedtheawardforCaribbeanFashionDesigner-Male2009.TheSouthernComfortlinewasselectedtodebutattheBHPBuildinginfrontofthewivesof34visitingdignitarieswhenTrinidadTobagohostedthe5thSummitoftheAmericaslaterthatsameyear.GregoryandColinewouldliketoseeMillhouseMensweargrowintoaninternationalbrandinthecomingyears.Theirwishisnottohavetheirdesignsineveryshopineverycountrybutrathercontinuetoservetheirnichemarketwithaglobalbrandidentity.Thereistalkofexpandingthebusinesstoincludehardandsoftaccessoriesaswellasapossiblechildrenslineofclothing.FornowthoughthecouplearecontentwiththeirsmallshopinTrinidadservingasthebaseforagrowingbrand.Theirdedicationtoqualityworkandcreativedesignmightbringthemthesuccesstheyarelookingforsoonerratherthanlater.MillhouseMenswearsIntersectionTheCaribbeanMeetsSavileRowfashionlinewasrecentlyselectedasthefirstCaribbeanmenswearbrandtobeshowcasedatLondonsprestigiousLondonCollectionsMenduringLondonMensFashionWeek.ThefutureofMillhouseMenswearappearstobeasbrightandcolourfulastheverylandthatinspireseachofthecouplesdesignsforthecompany.THISPAGEMILLHOUSECOLLECTION.PHOTOSANESTABROADPHOTOGRAPHY 88KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolArtAnEgyptianManInuencingCreoleArtinHaitiMoroBARUKTherearenotenoughpeoplethatappreciatethetruebeautythatHaitibringstothisworld.UsuallypeopledirecttheirattentiontoHaitiwhentheislandnationisembroiledincivilstrifeordevastatedbyanaturaldisaster.FortunatelytherearesomeindivdualssuchasMoroBarukwhocontradictthisconclusion.MoroBarukwasbornin1947acrosstheplanetfromHaitiintheAfricannationofEgypt. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201589kreolArtAnartistbytradeashegrewupMorotravelledtheglobeforyearsbeforefallinginlovewithHaitiandsettingdownrootsinthisCreolecommunityin1979.TodayheisapermanentfixtureofthecommunityinJacmelatownwhichisconsideredtheartisticandCulturalCentreofHaiti.ThisisalittlewindowtothestoryofhisjourneytoHaitihisviewsonthecountryanditscultureandhisvisionoflifeinHaiti.ArrivingintheCaribbeanBarukwasborninEgyptbuthisartistictalentdrovehimtotraveltheworldinsearchofhisultimateinspiration.ThefirststoponBarukstravelswasthenationofItalywherehestudiedfashiondesignandillustration.HecreditshisstudiesinItalywithprovidinghimthefoundationuponwhichallofhisfutureartworkwouldbebuilt.DuringabriefQAwithKreolMagazineMoroasheisknowninHaitidescribedhisstudiesinItalyinthefollowingtermsInItalymystudiescenteredonfashiondesignandillustration.Sodrawingpeopleinmotionhasbecomealmostsecondnaturetome.InadditionItookspecialtycoursesonhowtorenderinpaintingthevariousskinsfabricsstonesandmetalsusedinfashionillustrationhenceallthecolourfuldetailsinmyworkareanindirectresultofmytraininginItaly.FollowinghistimeinItalyMorostravelsandfashionjourneybroughthimtoNewYorkCity.AfterabriefspellthereMoroandhiswifePaulemovedtoArizonaforafewyearswhereMorostudiedandtaughtartontheIndianReservation.WhilelivinginArizonaMororespondedtoarequestbytheInternationalBahaiCommunitytocometoHaitiasatthetimetherewasagreatneedforFrenchspeakingBahais.In1979MoroandPaulelandedontheCaribbeanislandofHaiti.Almostimmediatelyhefelttheinspirationoftheislandsphysicalfeaturesnaturalenvironmentandtheattractionofthewarmandinvitingcreoleculturesurroundinghim.MoroBarukanEgyptianisapermanentfixtureoftheJacmelcommunityinHaitiOPPOSITEPAGEMOROANDHISWIFEPAULERIGHTBARUKSARTCLEARLYDEMONSTRATEHISFASCINATIONWITHHAITIANCULTURE 90KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolArtSettlinginHaitiItwasdifficulttoidentifypreciselywhatitwasaboutHaitithatcapturedhimsoforcefully.HehadfalleninlovewithHaitiandalovewhichhasgrownstrongerwitheachpassingyear.MoroandhiswifePaulesettledinthetownofJacmelalongthesoutherncoastofHaiti.WhenaskedabouthisaffectionofHaitiandhisthoughtsonworkingwithpeopleofitscreolecommunityheremarkedbysayingThemoreIlearnedaboutthecustomsthepeopleandtheculturethemorethedevotionincreased.IhavetoadmitthatlearningcreoleattheveryearlieststageofourstayinHaitifacilitatedourintegration.Itislikeworkinganywherewithanyculturedifferentfromonesown.YoulearnthecultureandthecustomsandthenyoucanworkonworkingwithHaitians.HaitisbrightcolourfullandscapesandvibrantculturehaveprovidedalltheinspirationthatMoroneedsashedevelopshisartisticactivitiesandpieces.InJacmelregardedinHaitiasthecentreofartsandculturehehasearnedtherespectandadmirationofallhisneighboursandcolleagues.VisionsfortheFutureForMorothefutureisthehopethathecancontinueonthesamepath.HeviewshistimeandworkinHaitiandindeedhislifeasawholeasamatterofservicetomankindasbringinghappinesstothosewhoseeitwhilespreadingthecreolecultureofHaititoawideraudience.InhisownwordsMyservicetomankindisadirectconsequenceofmyfaiththeBahaiFaithwhichisastrongpivotinthelivesofbothmywifeandI.Hisardentwishisthathecanmotivatepeopletobecomebetterservantstomankind.Ifaskedwhatishisgreatestaccomplishmenttheanswerisasurprise.ItisnotaworkofartorhiscurrentbusinessinHaitibuthisrelationshipwithhiswife.ThecouplehavetravelledtheworldtogethersettledinJacmeltogetherandhebelievesthatwithouthiswifessupporthewouldbeamereshadowofwhatheistoday.MorohassomeadviceforthosewhomightlooktoopeningabusinessinHaiti.HetoldKreolMagazineIftheyalreadyliveinHaititheyshouldstudythecapabilitiesoftheareatheychosefortheirbusiness.IftheycomefromoutsideofHaititheyshouldfirstanalysethelawthecustomsandthehistory.MorosWorkshopasitistodayMorooperatesanartisticworkshopinJacmel.Hehasengaged25Haitianartiststhatcreateboldwoodenandpapiermachepieces.MorosworkinJacmeliscreditedwithturningthetownintoanartisticcapitalintheCaribbean.NowheisworkingtirelesslytoassistthenextgenerationofHaitianartistsspreadadistinctlycreoleandHaitianartformthroughouttheregion.TheadornmentpiecescreatedinhisworkshoparewornbyeverydayHaitiansduringcreolefestivalsandhavebecomesynonymouswithartinHaiti.ONTHISPAGEMOROSWORKSHOPANDRETAILOUTLET Makeyourdreamscometrue...AworldofpleasureanddelightawaitsyouinMozambique.Everythingthatcomesbeforeyoureyesseemsasintriguingasinadream.Afeelingofintenseromancehasyouinitsspell.WhoevercomestoMozambiquewilleitherstayhereorreturnoneday.ThatsthemagicofMozambique.Beautifulandwelcoming.Joyfulandmystical.Uniqueandfascinating.VisitMozambiqueanddiscoverthethousandandonethingsthatmakeourcountrysospecial.www.inatur.org.mzwww.visitmozambique.netMozambiqueTourismAuthorityAv.25deSetembro1018Emailinfoinatour.org.mzTel258213073201Fax25821307324Herepassionandadventuremerge. 92KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelMoreThanJustEverestNepalHIMALAYASMOUNTAINLANDSCAPE.MOUNTMANASLUINTHEHIMALAYASNEPAL KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201593kreolTravelSteepedinlegendforhousingeightofthehighestmountainsintheworldNepalwasonceseenasadestinationreservedforthosewhodonnedbeardsponytailsandstateoftheart-alwaysluminous-mountainclimbingattire.WedgedbetweenthewannabesuperpowersofIndiaandChinaitalsolacksstaturecomparedtoitsneighbours.Butthingsarechanging.Travellersfrustratedbythefarreachingcosmopolitanbrushofglobalisationaresearchingforthoserareplacesthathavemaintainedtheiridentitythroughtheages.Nepalisonesuchnation. 94KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelWhenyoulandatTribhuvanInternationalAirportjustoutsideKathmanduyouwillrealiseimmediatelythatyouareinacountrydecadesbehindthefirstworldinregardstoprettymucheverything.Asyoudisembarkyourplanethatprobablyhousesmoretechnologythantheentireairportdonotbesurprisedwhenyouseefellowpassengerswalkingdirectlybeneaththeseethingjetengines.Immigrationconsistsofablascheckpointafterwhichyouhustleyourluggagefromachaoticcarousel.Makesureyouhaveyourwitsaboutyoubeforeheadingoutsideintothemosh-pitofoverzealoustaxidrivers.IfyouhavedoneyourhomeworkregardingtheweatherpatternsyouarelikelytoarrivesomewherebetweenOctoberandDecemberalthoughthelattermonthwillmeandealingwithcrowds.Whateverthecaselandingduringthiswindowwillensureyouaremetwithdeepblueskiesandamicabletemperatures.ThedriveintoKathmandu-theairportisabout45minutesaway-revealssprawlinggreybuildingsthirstyforalickofpaint.ThethemeofwidespreadpovertyandpollutionthatiscommonthroughoutmuchofAsiaisasapparentaseverbutwhenyoureachthetouristhubThamelthestreetssuddenlycleanupandthederelictsidewalksarereplacedbytidybuttinyshopsrunbylocalentrepreneurs.Thenarrowcobblestoneroadsthrongwithpedestriansandcyclistsbenignlyweavingthrougheachother.Centuryoldscenesoftradeplayoutinfrontofyouwhileyouperusethemultifacetedmerchandisethecolourfulvendorshaveonoffer-theartofbarteringclearlyaliveandwell.Whenthehungerpangssetinthereareaselectionofinternationalcuisinestochoosefrombutthereisabetteroptionthaneatingtheseforeignimitations.RoofRIGHTTHEFAMOUSDURBARSQUAREINKATHMANDUVALLEYNEPAL.BELOWTWOYOUNGWILDTIGERSFROLICKINGBYARIVERSIDENEPAL. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201595kreolTraveltopsoftheoldcolonialbuildingshavebeenconvertedintosundrenchedrestaurantsthatdoubleupaspanoramicviewingpoints.Hereyoucansitsixstoreysabovethegroundfloorcommotionandenjoydeliciouslocalmealswhileyoutakeinyourfirstsightingofthesnow-cappedpeaksbelongingtothefabledHimalayanMountainRange.FewpeoplevisitNepaltoexperienceKathmandualone.Itiswhatliesbeyondtheboundariesofthecapitaloutinthewildernesswhichwillreigniteyoursmoulderingsenseofadventure.Whatshouldnotsurpriseyouisthatitallbeginswiththemountains.200kmwestofKathmanduliesNepalsthirdlargestcityPokhara.ThenorthernperipheriesofthecityarehometomountainsofbiblicalproportionknownastheAnnapurnarange.Thismassofgiganticrockmasqueradesasanenormousplaygroundforadventureseekersbutcatchthistemptressinthewrongmoodandyouwillnotbegoingonanyadventureseveragain-Annapurnahasthehighestfatalityrateofallthepeaksover8000meterswithoneineverythreesummitattemptsendingintragedy.TrekkingmountainbikingandparaglidingareamongthemostcommonactivitiesinPokhara.SoundslikerunofthemillIfyouhaveexperiencedtheseactivitiesonagranderscaleitwasnotonourplanet.Anysenseofbravadoorgrandeuryoumightfeeltowardsyourselfevaporateswhenconfrontedwiththeenormityofyoursurrounds.Thesleepy-by-dayvibrant-by-nighttownofPokharawillcharmeventhehardiestoftravellers.Themainroadwhichisluckytoseeacarbeforelunchtimeislinedwithtravelagenciestrekkingoutletscafesrestaurantsandbars-engagewiththeeasy-goinglocalsforinsideinfoonthebestLEFTPHEWALAKENEPALBELOWSTAIRWAYTOHEAVENHIMALAYASNEPAL 96KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelplacestoeatdrinkanddance.IfyoustrolldownasidealleywithyourbacktothemountainsveryshortlythePhewaLakecomesintoview.Inthelattermonthsoftheyearthestillairturnsthismassofwaterintoasprawlingmirrorwithonlythewakesofhollowedouttreecanoesdisturbingthereflection.Ifyouchoosetopaddleoutintothelakeyourselfmakesureyoutakeyourwideanglelenswithyoutheinvertedmountainrangebeamingoffthewaterisasighttobehold.Therawbeautyofthistownwouldfetchaheftypremiuminfirstworldcountries.FornowthoughPokharaistheepitomeofthirdworldlivingandwasrecentlydesignatedasoneofthemostwalletfriendlytraveldestinationsontheglobewithsimpleaccommodationcostingaslittleas3anight.VastamountsofHimalayansnowmeltsduringthesummermonthsinNepal.Tricklesbecomestreamsstreamsturntotributariesandtributariesfuelicyturquoisetorrentsthatfeverishlymeanderthroughthesteepvistasinthefoothillsofthisvastmountainrange.Theseriverskeepthecountrysidegreenandarethelifebloodofmanyaruralvillage.Ifyouhaveanyadrenalinelefttheworld-classwhite-waterraftingwillsaptherestofit.PreferamellowerexcursionGofishingfortheenormousMahseerthatlurkinthedeeprivereddies.Thecountryisalsospeckledwithnaturereservesprotectingendangeredwildlife.TheChitwanNationalParkishometoarecoveringRhinocerospopulationelusiveleopardsfleetfootedfoxesobstinatehoneybadgersandofcoursethemajesticBengalTigers.Nepalremainsoneofthemostaestheticallygiftedcountriesintheworld.Foranoutdoorenthusiastitisdifficulttomatchthevarietyanddepthoftheexperiencesonoffer.Throwinthefriendlylocalstastyfoodandcheapbeerandyougetafull-bloodedshakeupofmindbodyandsoul.ABOVEKIMONASTERYINHIMALAYASMOUNTAINNEPALBELOWLEFTGOLDENBRAHMASYMBOLINFRONTOFBOUDHANATHBODHNATHSTUPAINKATHMANDUBELOWMIDDLESITTINGMONKEYONSWAYAMBHUNATHSTUPAINKATHMANDUBELOWRIGHTNAMCHEBAZAAR 98KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravel KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January201599kreolTravelZoomintoTrinidadandTobagoLightsCameraACTIONItiswherethejubilationandcolourofCarnivaldazzletheworldfromwherethetantalisingrhythmofsweetSocamusichailsandwherethenesoundofsteel-pantheonlyacousticmusicalinstrumenttobecreatedinthe20thcenturyhaditsbirth.ThisplaceofendlesscreativityisTrinidadandTobagoandthesearebutthreehallmarksthatattesttothecreativespiritinfusedintothistwinislandrepublicthatliestothesouthoftheCaribbeanarchipelago. 100KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelThemanyachievementsofitssonsanddaughtersthroughoutitsyounghistoryfromtheliteraryworksofworldrenownedNobelPrizewinnerSirVidiaNaipaultothemagnificentcostumecreationsoflegendarymas-mandesignerPeterMinshallhasenshrinedthistinynationof1.3millionpeopleasacountrywithimmensecreativecapital.ItcomesasnosurprisethatinitsstrategytodiversifyitseconomyawayfromoildependencetoonethataddsvaluetoitsotherendemicresourcestheGovernmentofTrinidadandTobagoidentifiedthisvastresourceofcreativityasoneofthecountryskeyareasoffocusfordevelopmentandexpansion.Itiswellknownthatbecauseofitsverynaturethecreativeindustriesreflecttheculturalcapitalintrinsictoacountryandassuchvaryfromnationtonation.ThoughitspoliticalindependencehasbeenenjoyedforlittlemorethanhalfacenturythistropicaljewelboastsarichculturalheritagethatisfashionednotonlyfromitsforefatherswhohailedfromEuropeAfricaIndiaandChinabutalsothroughitscontinuedinclusionofworldculturesofthosewhoarestilldrawntoitsshoresandwhomakeittheirhome.Theresultisauniquelyblendedbastionfromwhichthecreativeindustriesdrawtheiressence.ThroughfashionfilmperformingartsmusicandfineartsthisculturalfusionthatcharacterisesTrinidadandTobagoisbroughttotheinternationalstage.KeyamongstthecreativeindustriesforTrinidadandTobagoisFilm.IthasbeentoutedasoneofthefastestgrowingincomegeneratorsinTrinidadandTobagowithanestimatedUS5.6millionfortheperiod1999to2010andapproximatelyUS1.4millioninrevenuegeneratedduringtheperiod2005to2006alone.TheTrinidadandTobagoFilmCompanyestablishedin2006spearheadsthedevelopmentoftheindustry.Ithasrecordedanestimated85filmcrewsfrommajorstudiosaroundtheglobecamethroughthecountryduringtheperiod2011to2012.FilmLightscameraactiontheinternationaladagecannowbeappliedtothefilmindustryofTrinidadandTobagothankstorecentincentivesintroducedtoaccelerateitsgrowthanddevelopment.ThefilmsectorofTrinidadandTobagomayhavebeenobscuredinthepastbythedominantoilsectorbutithasenjoyedsteadygrowthandsinceHeavenKnowsMr.AllisonaFoxWarClassicwasshotABOVEBREATHTAKINGNIGHTVIEWOFPORTOFSPAINTRINIDAD. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015101kreolTravelonsitein1957thistwinislandrepublichasbeenthelocationforanumberoffeaturefilmsincludingSwissFamilyRobinson1960MenofGray1990TheMysticMasseur2001ContractKillers2007DulhaMilGaya2010ImSantanatheMovie2012HomeAgain2013andGirlfriendsGetaway2014.ThefilmHomeAgainwhichstarredTrinidadbornTatyanaAliwasbasedinJamaicabutfilmingwasdoneinbothTrinidadandTobagoandJamaicawithTrinidadandTobagosubstitutingforJamaica.ThecapacityofthistinynationtoprovidebackdropsofmanyothercountrieshashelpedTrinidadandTobagopositionitselfasarivaltoitsCaribbeancounterpartssuchasJamaicawhosehistoryinthefilmindustrystretchesasfarbackas1915.On-locationImaginepicturesquebeachesthrivingmangrovesandteemingreefstraditionalHindutemplesmagnificentmosquesandcolonialcastlesclassicalplantationhousesmysteriouscavesandlushrainforests.Imagineallofthesevastlydifferentbackdropsreadilyaccessiblewithinafewminutesofeachother.Aproducersdreamcometrue.Thisisexactlywhatthetwoislandsofonly5128squarekilometresoffertotheinternationalfilmmarket.AnanomalytoitsCaribbeancounterpartsTrinidadandTobagodoesnotonlyofferthesunseaandsandbackdrop.ItprovidessitesthatcandoubleforplacesinAsiaAfricaandSouthAmericatonamejustafew.Eachbackdropremainsuniquetoitselementsprovidingdifferentworldsallpackagedintoone.TalentpoolTrinidadandTobagoboaststalentinabundancenotonlyinitsnativetroupeofactorsandactresseswhohavedemonstratedtheirabilityinlocallyproducedtheatreandfilmbutalsointheareasthatcomprisethesub-sectorsofthefilmindustry.SoundtechniciansmusiciansfilmproducersscreenwritersphotographydirectorseditorsandanimatorsallthrivewithinthisculturalmontageandincreaseonanannualbasisthroughprogrammesavailablefromthecountrysthreeresidentuniversitiesTOPRIGHTCHILDRENONVACATIONCELEBRATINGEMANCIPATIONDAYWHICHCOMMEMORATESTHEABOLITIONOFSLAVERYINPORTOFSPAINTRINIDADTOBAGO.PHOTOSALIMOCTOBERRIGHTRICHARDTHOMPSONFROMTRINIDADANDTOBAGOWARMSONTHECOURSEPRIORTOA4X100USAVSTHEWORLDHEATATTHEPENNRELAYSINPHILADELPHIA.PHOTOASPENPHOTO 102KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelandadditionaltechnicalinstitutions.TheAnimationsectorinparticularhasdevelopedtoaninternationalstandardandnowboastsspecialisedtraininginanimationbothatatertiarylevelandforthoseattheSecondarylevelofeducation.ThesectoralsoboastsanannualanimationfestivalAnimaeCaribewhichfeaturesanimationandnewmediaproductionsfromtheCaribbeanregion.InOctober2014thefestivalcelebrateditsthirteenthyearofanimation.IncentivesForTrinidadandTobagoonekeyadvantagetotapintothenichemarketofon-locationfilmingistheabilitytoprovideattractiveincentivestoproducers.ThecountryoffersaProductionExpenditureRebatewhichappliestoon-locationexpenditureincurredinTrinidadTobagoincludingtherentaloflocalequipmentlocationfeesemploymentoflocalcastandcrewaccommodationcateringandtransportationcosts.Regionalandinternationalproducersstandtobenefitfromrebatesforon-locationcostsincurredthatfallwithintherangeofUSD100000USD8000000onathreetierscaleof12.515and35.Coupledwitha20rebateonlabourcostsifnationalsoftheislandsarehiredfortheproductionofthefilmproducershavetheopportunitytobenefitfromawhopping55cashrebate.AddedtotheattractivenessofthisincentivetheTrinidadandTobagoFilmCompanyFilmTTalsohasinplaceanefficientadministrativestructurethatprovidesassistancewithsecuringtraveldocumentsforfilmcrewsaswellaspermitsrequiredfortheimportationofequipment.BELOWOLDWATERWHEELARNOSVALETOBAGO KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015103kreolTravelInvestmentopportunityOpportunitiesforinvestmentaboundinthissmallcountrythatisdeterminedtomakeitsmarkintheworldasitstrategicallybuildsitsinfrastructureandcapacitytoestablishitselfasaviableplayerintheinternationalFilmindustry.In2011TrinidadandTobagoestablisheditsnationalinvestmentpromotionagencyInvesTTTrinidadandTobagoInvesTTwhichischargedwithsourcingandmanagingforeigninvestmentinthecountry.Throughtheorganisationsexpertresourcesassistanceisprovidedtoinvestorsfromtheenquirystagerightthroughtoset-upandaftercare.InvesTTprovidesaonestopsolutiontoinvestorsthroughitsvastknowledgebaseitsnetworksanddirectlinkageswithotherstateagenciessuchastheTrinidadandTobagoCreativeIndustriesCompanyCreativeTTaswellasthecountrysregulatoryorganisations.Fifty-sevenyearsafteritsfirston-locationfilmshootthismesmerisingtwinislandrepubliccanbeplacedontheinvestorlandscapeasanidealdestinationforon-locationfilming.Itoffersallofthequintessentialelementsfortheindustrycoupledwithattractivecashincentivesandaversatilelandscapepopulatedwithabevyofqualifiedandtalentedhumanresource.ThefocusoftheinternationalproducerslensshoulddefinitelyzoominontheopportunitiesthataboundinTrinidadandTobago.Visitwww.investt.co.ttformoreinformationonTrinidadandTobagoscreativeindustries.LEFTEDITHFALLSTRINIDADTOBAGOBELOWWHITECHESTEDEMERALDINFLIGHTTRINIDADTOBAGO 104KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelANEWIndianOceanbrandAtmosphereopensitsdoorsintheMaldivesWithinninemonthsofopeningAtmosphereKanifushiMaldiveshasbeenreceivingaccoladesfromtheworld-overforbeingoneofthebestPremiumAll-InclusiveresortsintheworldbyAOLUKandbeingoneoftheTopTenMostRomanticResortsintheMaldivesbyDailyTelegraphUKRelaxintheNewATMOSPHEREoftheMaldives KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015105kreolTravel 106KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelIfyouveeverhadtheprivilegeofvisitingtheMaldivesintheIndianOceanitmightbehardforyoutoimaginethatthisbeautifulcorneroftheglobecouldbeenhancedinanywayshapeorform.WithwarmhumidtemperaturesthroughouttheyearmilesofpristinebeachesandnaturalbeautythatisunparalleledthisislandparadiseappearstobeasliceofheavenonEarth.TheMaldiveshasbeenapopulartouristdestinationforEuropeanssincethe1970s.TodaytourismisthedrivingforcebehindtheeconomyinMaldivesbringinganestimated600000annualvisitorsandgenerating90ofthegovernmentstaxrevenue.Thiscollectionof26atollsnowhasonemorehoteltoaddtoitstourismofferings.TheAtmosphereKanifushiresortoffersanewlevelofluxuryandrelaxationontheshoresofMaldivesanditsaccommodationshavetobeexperiencedtobebelieved.GettoKnowMaldivesOfficiallyknownastheRepublicoftheMaldivestheislandnationislocatedintheIndianOceanneartheregionoftheArabianSea.Thenationconsistsof26differentatollsthatarearrangedinanorth-southconfiguration.Historiansandarchaeologistshavetracedtheoriginalsettlementsontheislandsbackto300BC.ThefirstsettlersoftheislandswerebelievedtohavebeenfishermanthatsailedoverfromtheIndianSubcontinentandSriLanka.Throughoutitshistorytheislandshaveremainedlargelyindependent.Therewerethreeperiodsofrulebyexternalforces.ThePortugueseEmpireruledtheislandsfor15yearsinthemid-16thcentury.Dutchforcescontrolledtheislandsforfourmonthsduringthe17thcenturyandtheBritishEmpireheldtheislandsasaprotectoratefrom1887until1965.TodaytheislandsserveasapopulartouristdestinationforpeoplethroughoutEuropeAsiaandtheMiddleEast.PriortotheriseoftourismintheeconomyofMaldivestherewerejusttwohotels.NowtheAtmosphereKanifushijoinsthelistofroughly92hotelsservingvisitorsofMaldives.AtmosphereKanifushiataGlanceNestledalongavaststretchoflagoonandlookingoutovertheturquoisewatersoftheIndianOceanAtmosphereKanifushiopeneditsdoorstotheworldon15December2013.TheresortisthesoleoccupantofKanifushiIslandintheLhaviyaniAtoll KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015107kreolTravel 108KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravellocateddirectlynorthofthecapitalofMaleandMaleInternationalAirport.KanifushiIslandisascant90metreswideandstretches2kminaneast-westorientation.Thereareatotalof150villasandsuitesavailableforguestsofAtmosphereKanifushi.TheresortboastssomeofthelargestvillasofanyhotelinMaldives.EachandeveryvillaatAtmosphereisseparatedfromneighbouringunitsbytropicalvegetationofferingthebestprivacypossible.Guestshavedirectaccesstothewhitesandybeachesoftheislandfromanyroomandenjoyaccommodationsthathavebeenbuiltwithaneyetowardthefusionofmodernandtraditionalconstruction.ThevillasandsuitesatAtmospherefeaturenaturalbuildingmaterialsfromtheatollstimbergraniteandstone.Thereareatotalof64SunsetBeachVillas.Thesevillashave100m2spaceandofferhighceilingsopen-airbathroomsandlargeverandasoverlookingthebeach.Thelargestvillasavailablearethe18SunsetFamilyVillasattheresort.With200m2spacetheseinterconnectedunitsfeatureseparateprivateaccessoutsideandhavethelargestcombinationofindoorandoutdoorspaceavailableatAtmosphere.AtmospheresotheraccommodationsaresplitbetweentheSunsetJuniorSuitesandSunsetPoolVillas.Thereare40JuniorSuitesontheislandeachoneoffering132m2ofspaceopen-airverandasandwhirlpoolbathtubs.Only10PoolVillasareavailable.Eachunitoffers192m2ofspacewithexpansiveoutdoorareaslargeverandasandaprivatepoolateachunit.LuxurywithPrivacyTheLhaviyaniAtollmaybesparselypopulatedbutthatdoesnotmeanthatyouarelefttoyourowndeviceswhenyouarriveatAtmosphereKanifushi.Theresortoffersguestsavarietyofactivitiesrestaurantsandamenitiestoenjoyduringavisit.TheislandhasfiverestaurantsforgueststochoosefromawideselectionofInternationalcuisines.StartyourdayoffwithbreakfastatTheSpicetheresortsmainrestaurant.EnjoyacooldrinkasyourelaxbythebeachatTheLiquidthemainbarandfinishoffthedaywithdinneratTeppanyakiGrill.AtmosphereoffersanexcitingvarietyofcuisinethatrangesfromArabianandIndiantofusioncuisineandnativedishes.Theresortalsooffersarangeofactivitiesandotheramenitiestoentertainanyguestwhetheritscouplesonahoneymoonorfamiliesonholiday.TheAkiriSpabyMandaraboastssixtreatmentroomssituatedamidstalushlandscapedgardenontheeasterntipoftheisland.Therapyprofessionalsareonhandtoofferhealthandbeautytreatmentsholistichealinghairandbeautysalonservicesandevenconsultationstohelpguestsbalancetheirbodyandmind. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015109kreolTravelIfyouwanttogetoutandexploreMaldivestherearesixavailableadventureandculturalexcursions.Choosebetweenvisitstolocalcommunitiestointeractwiththepopulaceorgoonapicnictooneofthemanyuninhabitedislandsnearby.Atmospherehasfamiliescoveredtoo.FamilieswitholderchildrencanenjoydivingsailingandsnorkellingtripsinthebeautifulturquoisewaterssurroundingtheislandwhilefamilieswithyoungerchildrencanenjoyactivitiesatTheKidsCluborTheClubhouseasportsandrecreationcentre.ExperienceitallwiththePlatinumPlusPlanThereisnowrongwaytoenjoythebeautifulsettingandsplendidamenitiesofAtmosphereKanifushibutthereisaperfectwaytodoso.ThePlatinumPlusplanisanall-inclusiveholidaybookingoptionthatprovidesguestswitheverythingtheyneedtoenjoytheirvisittoMaldiveswithoutworryingaboutbookingthingsseparately.WiththePlatinumPlusplanguestsareofferedguidanceonenjoyingthemanybenefitsofAtmospherefromthemomenttheyarriveuntiltheirfinalhoursontheisland.WhenguestsarrivetheAtmosphereTeamescortsthemtothecheck-incounterandshowsthemtothedooroftheirvilla.GuestsonthePlatinumPlusplanhaveaccesstobreakfastlunchanddinneratTheSpicaswellassnacksfromTheLiquidalacarteoptionsatTheSunsetPoolBarandtheoptionofdiningatJustVeg.Beveragesareprovidedthroughoutthestayatalloftheaforementionedrestaurants.ThePlatinumPlusplanalsoofferscomplimentaryactivitiesincludingbutnotlimitedtoMusicDJnightdailyonesunsetfishingtriponeadventureculturalexcursionperguestandunlimitedsnorkellingexcursionslimittwoperday.AttheendofthedayavisittoAtmosphereKanifushioffersgueststheopportunitytoescapefromtheconstanthumofthemodernworld.Inthisquietcorneroftheworldtimestandsstillandthewavesoftheoceansingyoutosleepeverynight.AtmosphereKanifushiisthefirstofmanyAtmosphere-brandresortsopeningintheIndianOceanofferingabrandnewtakeonluxuryaccommodations.FutureresortsareplannedforSeychellesSriLankaandIndia.Visitwww.atmosphere-kanifushi.comorfurtherdetails 110KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelFortheAdventurousTravellerRemoteIslandDESTINATIONS3 KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015111kreolTravelForthosewhowanttogettrulyfarawayfromthefastpaceofmodernlifefewthingsappealmorethanaremoteislandgetawayinthemiddleofnowhere.Therearemanythousandsofsmallremoteislandsintheworldsvastoceansmanyofwhichareuninhabitedandotherswhicharehometosmallcommunitiesofindigenouspeoplesorthosedescendedfromcolonistsoftimeslongpast.Unfortunatelygettingtomostoftheseplaceswontbecheaporeasybutthatsnottosayitsimpossibleandifaonce-in-a-lifetimeexperienceiswhatyourelookingforyoumightndsomeofthefollowingislanddestinationsinterestingBEAUTIFULSCENICVIEWOFBLUEGULFUNDERBARRENMOUNTAINRANGEWITHMELTINGSNOWAGAINSTTHEBACKGROUNDOFADRAMATICEVENINGSKYNEARBARENTSBURGSPITSBERGENSVALBARDISLANDNORWAYGREENLANDSEA. 112KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravel1-SpitsbergenAboutathirdthesizeofEnglandtheislandofSpitsbergenisthelargestislandintheremoteArcticarchipelagoofSvalbardaterritoryadministeredbyNorway.Theentirepopulationofaround2600peoplelivesonthemainislandwiththevastmajorityofthemresidinginthemainsettlementofLongyearbyen.TheonlyothersettlementofanysizeisBarentsburgaRussiancoal-miningtown.BeingapproximatelyhalfwaybetweenmainlandNorwayandtheNorthPoleSpitsbergenisalonelytundrawithaveragesummertemperaturesofaround5C.DuetobeingfarbeyondtheArcticCirclethesunneverrisesabovethehorizonduringthewintermonthsgivingwaytosomeoftheworldsmostspectacularnaturallightshows-theAuroraBorealis.ThemainreasonsforvisitingSpitsbergenaretheNorthernLightsortheregionsuniquearcticnaturewheretherearemorepolarbearsthanpeople.Otherindigenousanimalsincludepuffinshumpbackwhalesorcasarcticfoxesandcaribous.Longyearbyeniswheremostpeoplestayanditishometothenorthernmostchurchintheworldaswellasanumberofmuseums.BarentsburgishometotheworldsnorthernmostLeninstatueaswellasvariousotherexamplesofclassicSoviet-styleartandpropaganda.YoucangettoSpitsbergenbyplaneorboat.TherearescheduledflightsfrombothOsloandTromsincludingcheapflightswiththebudgetairlineNorwegianAir.Duringthesummeranumberofcruisesvisittheislandsandtheseoffertheonlypracticalwaytovisitsomeofthemoreremoteareasoftheislands.Therearevirtuallynoferriestotheislandsalthoughsomecargoshipsoccasionallytakepassengers.FROMTOPTOBOTTOMAGROUPOFSNOWMOBILESONTHEICEOUTSIDELONGYEARBYENSVALBARDNORWAY.BARNACLEGEESEWITHCHICKSSPITSBERGENSVALBARDNORWAY.POLARBEARWITHCUBYOUNGARCTICFOXLOOKSWITHCURIOSITYSVALBARDINSUMMER KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015113kreolTravel2-SaintHelenaOneoftheworldsmostisolatedyetinhabitedislandsSaintHelenaisactuallyaBritishOverseasTerritoryrightinthemiddleoftheAtlanticOcean.TheterritoryalsoincludestheevenmoreremoteislandsofAscensionandTristandaCunhatheworldsmostremoteinhabitedisland.Jamestownistheislandscapitalandhometosome700ofSaintHelenaspopulationof4200.Withadrymaritimetropicalclimatethisvolcanicislandoffersaveragetemperaturesinthelow-tomid-twentiesthroughouttheyearwithlittleinthewayofseasonalvariation.Theislandisalsoknownforhavinghundredsofendemicspeciesofplantsandanimalssuchasthewirebirdandnumerousfishandothersealife.SaintHelenaismostfamousforbeingtheplacewhereNapoleonlivedinexileuntilhisdeathin1821.ThesiteofhisincarcerationLongwoodHouseislocatedinavillageofthesamename.Itisnowamuseumandoneofthemostimportanttouristicdestinationsontheisland.OtherimportantsightsincludetheMuseumofSaintHelenatheJacobsLadderstaircaseleadingdownintoJamestowntheseventeenthcenturycastleandthenineteenthcenturySaintPaulsCathedral.CurrentlytheonlywaytovisitSaintHelenaisbyboatandtheworldslastsurvivingRoyalMailShipistheonlyboatservingtheisland.ThetripbyRMSStHelenaisanamazingexperienceinitselfanditdepartsfromtheSouthAfricancapitalCapeTownonceortwiceeverymonth.Thejourneytakesfivenights.AnairportiscurrentlyunderconstructionandisduetoopeninFebruary2016afterwhichtheRMSStHelenaisduetoberetired.FROMTOPLEFTCLOCKWISELONGWOODHOUSEWHICHWASTHERESIDENCEOFNAPOLEONDURINGHISEXILEINSTHELENASANDYBAYDISTRICTONSTHELENATHEVIEWOFJAMESTOWNFROMABOVESTHELENAENDEMICTREEFERNSTHELENA 114KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravel3-SouthGeorgiaIfyouarelookingforsomethingtrulyremoteandinthemiddleofnowherethenthelargelyuninhabitedislandofSouthGeorgiaoffersatrulymemorableexperience.ThelargestislandoftheinhospitableBritishOverseasTerritoryoftheSouthGeorgiaandSouthSandwichIslandsSouthGeorgiapresentssomesplendiduniquewildlifeandaharshbutbeautifullandscapealongwithaninterestinghistory.ThereareonlyaroundthirtypeoplelivingontheislandsincludingascienceteambasedonBirdIslandandKingEdwardPointaswellasafewpeoplewhocomeandgotomaintainthemuseumandchurchintheformerwhalingcolonyofGrytviken.AlthoughlargelyabandonedGrytvikenishometoaroundtwentypeopleduringthesummer.Thetownischaracterisedbyitsmanyrustingindustrialbuildingsandwhaleboneswhichwereleftabandonedwhenthewhalingstationclosedin1966.Thewhalingstationmaybeexploredandthereisamuseumwhichisopenduringthesummer.Otherimportantsitesincludethestill-functioningchurchandthegravesiteofErnestShackleton.KingEdwardPointisofficiallythecapitalalthoughundertenpeoplearethereduringthewintermonthswithasmanyastwentyduringthesummer.Visitorscanwalk1kmalongthecoastfromGrytviken.TheonlywaytoreachSouthGeorgiaoranyoftheotherislandsinthegroupistodosobyboat.Adventuroussailorssometimesgothereontheirownyachtsbuttherearealsoanumberofcompanieswhichstopbytheislandonacruise.Howeverifyouaregoingtomakethetripyoushouldbeawarethattheseasintheregiontendtobeextremelyroughandseasicknessisacommonproblemforeventhemostexperiencedamongsailors.TOPLEFTCOLONYOFKINGPENGUINSINSOUTHGEORGIAANTARCTICATOPRIGHTELEPHANTSEALSANDRUSTINGSHIPWRECK.THEFEMALESEALSRESTATTHEHISTORICWHALINGSTATIONINGRYTVIKENSOUTHGEORGIAISLANDBELOWUKTERRITORYLEITHHARBORSOUTHGEORGIAISLANDTHESUNISSETTINGOVERTHEABANDONEDWHALINGSTATIONFACTORY 116KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSocio-PoliticalSIDSliveonthefrontlinesofclimatechangeUNSecretaryGeneralBanKi-MoonGlobalSummitRESCUINGSMALLISLANDSDEVELOPINGSTATESEdwinLaurent KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015117kreolSocio-PoliticalForfourdaysinSeptemberMauritiusSeychellesDominicaStLuciaandotherSmallIslandDevelopingStatesSIDSwereinthepoliticalspotlight.WorldleadersincludingtheUNsSecretaryGeneralBanKi-Moon21headsofgovernmentstheEUsDevelopmentCommissionerAndrisPiebalgsandover3500delegateswereinSamoadebatingtheirsustainabledevelopment.ButwhyallthisinterestWhatissospecialabouttheselittlecountries 118KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSocio-PoliticalThefactisthatuntilrecentlytheperceivedpopularwisdomwasthattherereallywasnothingremarkableaboutSmallIslandDevelopingStatesSIDS.In1999theWorldBankpublishedSmallStatesSmallProblemsIncomeGrowthandVolatilityinSmallStatesbyEasterlyandKraay.Theyconcludedthatsmallstateshaveperhapsreceivedexcessiveattentionarenodifferentfromlargestatesandsoshouldreceivethesamepolicyadvicethatlargestatesdo.Smallstatesobjectedclaimingthatthereportshowedneitherunderstandingofnorsympathyfortheirsituationandpredicament.Theyfearedthatsuchthinkingwouldundermineprospectsforsecuringtheinternationalhelptheyneededtotacklethemajordevelopmentchallengestheyfaced.TheythereforecontinuedtheircampaigntochangeperceptionseventhoughtheUNhadalreadyataGlobalConferenceinBarbadosin1994drawnupaprogrammeofactiontosupportthem.TheUNmetinMauritiusinJanuary2005toconsiderSIDSenvironmentaltradeandeconomicdevelopmentchallenges.Interestinglyforthefirsttimetheroleofcultureintheirsustainabledevelopmentwasformallyaddressed.TheRoadtoSamoaAtRIO20theGlobalconferenceonSustainableDevelopmentheldinBrazilinJuneof2012SIDShammeredhometheircase.TheygottheUNtoacceptthattheirsmallsizeremotenesslimitedresourcesandexportsandsevereeconomicandenvironmentalchallengesmadethemuniquelyvulnerable.TheconferencesconcludingdocumentTheFutureWeWantformallyacceptedSIDSareaspecialcaseforsustainabledevelopment.EversinceislandsintheCaribbeanIndianOceanPacificandelsewherehadbeenpreparingtheirpositionsforthesummitinSamoa.Theywantednotlipservicebutconcretesupportfromtheinternationalcommunity.HowevertobeabletoenjoyspecialattentionandprivilegesintheeconomicspherenotablyfinanceandtradeSIDSwouldneedtobeformallyrecognisedasadistinctgroupofcountries.TheIndianOceanCommissionproposedalistofSIDSforapproval.TheSummitWhentheSummitgotunderwayonthefirstofSeptembertheislandsexplainedtheobstaclestotheirsustainabledevelopmentincludingthoseduetoclimatechange.Theystressedthattheycannottacklethemsuccessfullyontheirownbutneedinternationalpartnershipandsupport.ABOVESECRETARYGENERALOFTHEUNITEDNATIONSBANKIMOON.PHOTO360BTheconferencesconcludingdocumentTheFutureWeWantformallyacceptedSIDSareaspecialcaseforsustainabledevelopment. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015119kreolSocio-PoliticalTheirprosperityandqualityoflifearelargelyinfluencedbythetermsonwhichtheytradewithothercountriesandaccessinternationalfinanceandhowclimatechangeismanaged.WithoutmuchpowerattheinternationallevelSIDShavelittlecontroloverthoseleversoftheirengagementwiththeoutsideworld.Theirfateisinthehandsofothers.BarbadosPrimeMinisterFreudelStewartsummedupthechallengeinhiscallforaction.HesaidIfwedonotactivelyshapethefutureitwillimposeitselfonusinwaysthatarefundamentallyatvariancewithourinterests.FirstvictimsofclimatechangeBanKi-MoontoldtheSummitSIDSliveonthefrontlinesofclimatechange.HealsospokeoftheuniquethreatsthatsomeliketheSolomonIslandsfacewhereasmalltownonTaroIslandisplanningtorelocateitsentirepopulation.StLuciasEnvironmentMinisterDrJamesFletcherrecountedhowin2010followingtheworstdroughtin40yearsHurricaneTomasbroughtdeathanddestructionwhenitdeposited24inchesofrainontheislandin24hours.Thiserased50ofGDP.Anaptanalogyisthatofthecanariestakendownthecoalminesintheoldendays.Astheairbecamepoisonousthefragilebirdscollapsedgivingearlywarningtotheminersbeforetheybegantobeaffected.Smallislandsarelikethosecanariesandclimatechangethegasintheminethatwilleventuallykilleveryoneifthewarningisnotheeded.Severalspeakerspointedtotheironythatwhilstsmallislandsarebeingdisproportionatelyharmedbyglobalpollutionandconsequentenvironmentaldegradationtheyarenottheculprits.SeychellesAmbassadorRonaldJumeauexplainedthatclimatechangeisworseningtheexistingproblemsofwaterscarcityandfoodsecurity.ArvinBoolellMauritiusMinisterofForeignAffairsdescribedhowclimatechangeisthreateninglivesandunderminingdevelopmenteffortswecannotbeexpectedtomakeprogresstowardsthenextlevelofdevelopmentwhenoursurvivalisuncertainandourlimitedresourcesarebeingdivertedtomanagingtheimpactsofclimatechangehesaid.TheS.A.M.O.A.PathwayA32pagedeclarationTheS.A.M.O.A.PathwaythathadbeendraftedtwomonthsearlierbyAmbassadorsinNewYorkwasdutifullyadoptedbytheSummit.InordertoreachagreementSIDSwouldhavehadtodroporwater-downsomeofthosekeydemandsthatotherpartieswouldhaveobjectedto.InthatwayconfrontationwasavoidedandsmoothsailingassuredinSamoathoughattheexpenseoftheinterestsoftheSIDSthemselves.Thedeclarationiswell-meaningbutSIDSarenotcelebrating.Theyfearthatachievingtheirmajorobjectivesinboththeeconomicandenvironmentalspheresisasremoteasever.DrFletcherreflectedthemoodsayingdespiteallthedeclarationsaffirmationsandreaffirmationsoverallprogressinsurmountingthenumerouschallengesfacingourcommunityofislandnationshasoverthelasttwodecadesbeenmodestatbest.Indeedinsomeareastherehasbeennoticeableregression.DuringaverybriefwindowinSeptemberglobalsympatheticattentionwasfocusedonSIDS.NeverthelessiftheywerenotablethentogettheirneedsaddressedwhathopecantheyhavewhentheworldsprioritiesmoveonandSAMOAisjustadistantmemoryThereisstillalongwaytogofortheworldssmallislands.wecannotbeexpectedtomakeprogresstowardsthenextlevelofdevelopmentwhenoursurvivalisuncertainandourlimitedresourcesarebeingdivertedtomanagingtheimpactsofclimatechange 120KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSportPATRICKVIEIRAUsingFootballtoProvideaBrighterFuture 121KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSportEachyearmillionsofCreolechildrenarebornintoabjectpovertyontheAfricancontinent.Thesechildrenarevictimsofcircumstancestheycannotcontrolcorruptpoliticalsystemsstrugglingeconomiesandalackofbasicneedssuchasfoodcleanwaterandeducation.ItwouldbeeasyfortheseCreolechildrentolosehopeforabetterlife.Thisdepressingpictureforgetsthoseexamplesofadultswhocamefromthesesameconditionsandmadeabrighterfutureforthemselvesthroughdeterminationandalittleluck.PatrickVieiracamefromjustsuchabackgroundtheAfricannationofSenegalandwentontobecomeawealthyinternationalfootballer.Thisrequiredtremendoushardworkandsomebonchance.AfterbeatingthepovertyandlackofopportunityheexperiencedinhisnativeSenegalVieiraworkstirelesslytothisdaytotryandbethesourceofluckforasmanyyoungCreolechildreninhisnativehomelandaspossible.BornintoPovertyVieirawasbornintopovertyinSenegalscapitalcityofDakaron23June1976.HisfamilypossessesdeepCreolerootsonbothsidesofthefamilytree.HismotherwhosesurnameVieiraPatrickusesisofPortuguesedescentandwasbornontheislandnationofCapeVerde.ThemajorityofCapeVerdespopulationisCreoleandislargelytheresultofmenofEuropeandescentmarryingwomenofAfricandescent.LittleisknownaboutVieirasfatherbecausehisparentsdivorcedwhilePatrickwasstillyoungandtothisdayhehasnotseenhisfatheragain.HisescapefrompovertyinSenegalcameattheageof8whenheandhismothermovedtoDreuxFrance.ThefamilysmovetoFrancewasmadeeasierbyhisgrandfathersserviceintheFrenchArmywhichgrantedVieirawithFrenchcitizenshipatbirth.ThemovetoFrancewouldeventuallyleadtoEuropeanscoutsnoticingVieirasfootballtalentandhelpedsethimonthepathtoacareerthatwouldresultininternationalattentionforPatrick.ThestatureandwealththathegainedwouldeventuallyhelpVieiramakeadifferencetothelivesofothersbackinSenegal.PlayingCareerVieirasignedhisfirstprofessionaldealwithFrenchclubASCannesanddebutedwiththeclubattheageof17.Bytheageof19hewascaptainingtheclubbuthistimewiththeRedDragonswouldbeshortlived.In1995hisimmensetalentandphysicalstaturehestandsatasolidlybuilt64gainedtheattentionofItaliangiantsACMilan.AfteroneseasonspentprimarilyinthereservessquadinItalyVieirawasgivenachancetomakeanameforhimselfwhenfellowFrenchmanArseneWengercamecallingwithanoffertojoinEnglishgiantsArsenal.VieirawouldspendthenextdecadeanchoringthemidfieldforArsenaldominatinggameswithhisphysicalpresenceandcontrollingthepacewithhisprecisepassing.VieirasFrenchcitizenshipallowedhimtoplayforFrancesnationalteam.Overthecourseofhiscareerhemade107appearancesforFrancewinningthe1998FIFAWorldCupandUEFAEuro2000.ThelatterstagesofhisplayingcareerincludedstintswithJuventusInterMilanandManchesterCity.ItwasduringthewaningyearsofhiscareerthatVieirafoundthecallingtowhichhewoulddonatehistimeandwealthwhenhisplayingdayswereofficiallyover.HehadusedfootballasameansofescapingthepovertyofhisnativeSenegalandwantedtohelpasmanychildrenaspossiblerealisethatsamedream.ALifeofGivingVieiraannouncedhisretirementfromalllevelsoffootballandofficiallyacceptedapositionwithhisfinalclubManchesterCityintrainingandyouthdevelopment.HebeganhisworkinthatcapacityinJuly2011andaftertwoyearswasappointedOPPOSITEPAGEPATRICKVIEIRAINACTIONDURINGAFRIENDLYMATCHBETWEENBARCELONAANDJUVENTUSATTHENOUCAMPSTADIUMINBARCELONA.PHOTOMAXISPORTPatrickVieiraslifeandcareerareoendenedbyhisexploitsonthefootballpitch.DespiteasuccessfulcareerforclubandcountryVieiraslifeisaboutmorethanhisaccomplishmentsasafootballer.WeexploreVieirasCreolerootsandhowhehasusedhisstatureandwealthtogivebacktoyoungergenerationsofCreolesfacingthepovertyheovercameasachild. 122KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSportsquadmanagerforthereserveteamandEliteDevelopmentsquadatManchesterCity.Asof2013VieirasroleatManchesterCityhasgrowntoincludeanexecutivepositionoverseeingtheclubsCityintheCommunityinitiative.Thesocialresponsibilityprogrammeaimstocreatedeepertiesbetweentheclubanditscommunity.Focusedonthefourkeyareasofsporthealthyoungpeopleandskillsenterprisetheprogrammeaimstodevelopchildrenasawholepersonratherthanfocusingsimplyonfootballtalent.ButhisgreatestcontributionstochildrencomeinhisnativeSenegal.AftermovingtoFranceinhisyouthVieiradidnotreturntoSenegaluntil2003.Whenhedidthoughhebroughtwithhimaconceptandthepowertoputhisplaninmotion.VieirawasnostrangertothepovertythatmillionsofSenegalesechildrenweregrowingupinandsawtheopportunitytousefootballtoescapejustashedid.ChildrenallacrossAfricalookattherags-to-richeslivesoffootballersfromthecontinentVieiraDidierDrogbaandMichaelEssienandstrivetoreplicatethatsuccess.UnfortunatelyamodernslavetradeexistsinAfricathatseesmiddlemenandunscrupulousagentsofferAfricanyouthachanceatfootballgloryinEuropeforafeeof2000.UnfortunatelyafterfamiliesarefleecedforthefundstheseboysaretakentoEuropeandessentiallydumpedonthestreetsofmajorcitiesnevertorealisetheirfootballdreams.Itestimatedthatasmanyas5000youngboyshavefallenvictimtotheserogueschemesinrecentyears.VieirasawtheopportunitytosolvethisproblemanduponhisreturntoSenegalin2003openedtheDiambarsAcademy.Withinfouryearstheacademyhoused90Senegaleseyouthbetweentheagesof13and18.Studentsattheacademyhadtheopportunitytotrainonwell-groomedsandypitchesliveinroomswithwallssanitationandlightingandalsoattendclasseseverymorningtoprovideeducationalongwithfootballdevelopment.ThealternativeinSenegalisalifeofpovertylivedinsprawlingshantytownswherecorrugatedironandplasticsheetshavetosufficeforhousingmaterial.VieirasacademyhassolidcontactsinEuropemakingitpossiblefortheseyoungsterstorealisetheirdreamsofplayingfootball.ForthosewhomakeitVieiraandhisacademyfollowtheyoungstersdevelopmenttoensuretheyreceiveguidanceandprotectionevenoutsideSenegal.ForthosethatdonothavethetalenttheDiambarsAcademyhasprovidedthemwiththeeducationtheyotherwisewouldhavegonewithout.Roughly70ofSenegalesechildrenneverseeaclassroommakingVieirasacademyallthemorevitaltothoseyouthwhoarefortunateenoughtoattend.OtherSocialEfortsInrecentyearsVieirahasincreasedhissocialeffortsparticularlythoseaimedataidingthoseinhisnativeSenegal.HehaslenthisnametothePassCampaignoperatedbyWesternUnion.TheprogrammesponsorsadaysschoolingforonechildforeachsuccessfulpassduringtheUEFAEuropaLeagueclubtournament.VieirawasalsorecentlynominatedasGoodwillAmbassadortotheFoodandAgricultureOrganizationoftheUnitedNations.TheUNprogrammeaimstohelpdevelopinganddevelopednationstransitiontomodernisedagricultureindustriesandpractices.StarvationisamajorproblemacrossAfricaandVieirasawtheopportunitytolendhisstatusandnametoaprogrammethatwouldbenefitmillionssufferingthroughanupbringingsimilartohisowninSenegal.ItwouldhavebeeneasyforPatrickVieiratoconsiderhislifeasuccessafterescapingthedestitutionofhisearlylifeinSenegalandspendhisretirementcountinghiswealth.Insteadheoptedtogivebacktootheryoungcreolesstrugglingtofightthesamebattleshefoughtasayouth.Hechosetonotonlyserveasaninspirationtothenextgenerationbuttoworkhardtomentorthatnextgenerationfirsthand.ABOVELEFTDAMIENDUFFPATRICKVIEIRAANDKEVINKILBANE.ISLANDVFRANCEWORLDCUPQUALIFIER.PHOTOEOGHANMCNALLYABOVERIGHTARSENALCAPTAINPATRICKVIEIRABEINGPRESENTEDWITHTHEPREMIERLEAGUETROPHYATHIGHBURYSTADIUMLONDON.ARSENALHADBEATENLEICESTERCITY2-1TOLIFTTHE2004LEAGUETROPHYWITHOUTLOSINGASINGLEMATCH.THEARSENALSQUADDURINGTHATINCREDIBLEYEARWEREGIVENTHETITLETHEINVINCIBLES.PHOTOALEXANDEROTTESEN 123kreolFeatureKREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015JAMESMICHELIslandNationinaGlobalSeaMAKINGTHENEWSEYCHELLESPresidentJamesA.Micheltellsaremarkablestoryofhowasmallnationiscomingtotermswithglobalisation.ItreflectshisownversionoftheNewSeychelles.Fortenyearshehasledhisnationandthisbookoffersatimelyopportunityforreflection.Ithasnotbeenaneasyjourney.Theeconomywasalreadythesubjectofamajoroverhaulwheninadditionawayhadtobefoundtocountertheimpactoftheglobalfinancialcrisis.AsifthiswasnotenoughSeychelleshasbeenonthefrontlineincounteringtheconstantthreatofSomalipiratesonthehighseas.Inspiteofthesechallengesthishasalsobeenatimeoffurtherdomesticprogressinvestmentineducationandhealthhasincreasedandthecountryhasopeneditsownuniversity.Eachyearmoretouristschoosetovisitthistropicalidyllluredbythewarmthofitspeopleaswellastheexoticenvironment.MeanwhileMichelhasworkedtirelesslytostrengthentiesacrosstheIndianOceanandtoplayabiggerroleontheAfricancontinent.Asarepresentativeofasmallislandnationandachampionfortheenvironmenthisvoiceiswidelyheardandrespectedontheinternationalstage.ItisinnosmallmeasureduetohisowneffortsthattheUnitedNationsdesignated2014astheInternationalYearofSmallIslandStates.DrawingonhisownspeechesthisbookwillbeofinterestnotonlytothosewhoalreadyknowSeychellesbuttoanyonewhoisfascinatedbythemanydimensionsofchangeinthemodernworld.IttellstheuniquestoryofanIslandnationinaGlobalsea.Celebrating10YearsinOfce 124KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelkreolSportAmericasHaitianFirstWorldCupHeroAstheworldsmostbelovedsportfootballpreparedforthe2014WorldCupinBrazilitishardtooverlookthefactthatoneoffootballsgreatestmatchesoccurredthere63yearsago.ItwasinBrazilduringthe1950WorldCupthattheinfamousshotheardroundtheworldmatchtookplacebetweentherabbleofamateursfromtheUnitedStatesandarguablythegreatestteamintheworldfromEngland.RememberJOEGAETJENSWhilethematchitselfisrecalledfromtimetotimetheheroofthematchisamanwhohasbecomelosttohistoryorrememberedwithamythicaltalefullofinaccuracies.JoeGaetjensahumbleyoungmanfromaprominentfamilyinHaitiwastheherothatdayfortheUnitedStates.Howeverdespitehisfamousgoallittleisknownaboutthemanthatwouldhatchthegreatestupsetinfootballhistory.TheManJosephEdouardGaetjenswasborninPort-au-PrinceHaition19March1924.JoewasbornintoaonceaffluentfamilythatwasstillwellentrenchedamongtheelitefamiliesinHaiti.GaetjensfamilyhadcometoHaiti100yearsearliershortlyafterthenationgaineditsindependencefollowingaslaverevoltagainsttherulingFrench.Joesgreat-grandfatherThomasmigratedtoHaitifromBremenGermanyinlate1825attherequestoftheKingofPrussia.ThomaswassenttoHaititoserveasabusinessemissaryandwouldgoontomarryalocalwoman.ThomaswifeLeonieDejoiewasthedaughterofaleadinggeneralfromHaitisrebellionandhispositionalongwithThomasroleasabusinessemissarypositionedthefamilyforsuccess.ThatconnectionhoweverwouldcostJoehislifeacenturylaterGaetjensfamilywasnolongerextravagantlywealthybythetimehewasbornin1924buthedidntgrowupintheslumsofPort-au-Princeassomemythsinsist.JoelearnedtoplayfootballwearingpropercleatsonthegrassybackyardofhisfamilysPort-au-Princevilla.Attheageof14JoejoinedEtoileHaitienneoftheprofessionalLigueHaitienneinhishomeland.Hewouldplayfortheclubforanumberofyearswinningleaguechampionshipsin1942and1944.Joequicklyrealisedthatplayingprofessionalfootballwasnotgoingtopaythebillsandin1947hemovedtotheUnitedStatestostudyaccountingonaHaitiangovernmentscholarshipatColumbiaUniversityinNewYorkCity.WhilelivingthereJoeplayedfortheBrookhattanGalaciaofthenow-defunctAmericanSoccerLeague.AlthoughhewasatopplayerinaneliteteamatthattimefootballsoccerasitsknowninAmericatookabackseatinAmericanmindstoAmericanfootballandbaseball.JoesupplementedhisincomefromBrookhattanwherehewaspaid25permatchworkingasadishwasheratRudysCafinHarlem.TheMatchFootballduringthisperiodwasanembarrassingafterthoughtformostAmericans.Althoughthegamewaslargelyignoreditalreadypossesseda 125KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSportsmallbitofhistory.DuringtheinauguralWorldCupin1930theUnitedStatesmadeanimpossibleruntothefinalfourofthetournament.AmongitsaccomplishmentstheAmericanteampostedthefirstevercleansheetataWorldCupdefeatingBelgium3-0inoneofthefirstgamesplayedinthetournament.Afterthe1930WorldCuphoweverthegamefadedbackintoobscurity.Atthe1948OlympicsinLondontheUSsquadwasembarrassedinthefirstroundwitha9-0defeattoItaly.Subsequentdefeatsinfriendlymatchesincludedan11-0defeattoNorwayanda5-0defeattoNorthernIreland.AfterscratchingthroughqualificationinMexicoCityin1949with6-0and6-2defeatstoMexicofollowedbya5-2victoryand1-1drawwithCubatheU.S.SoccerFederationdecidedchangewasneeded.EnterJoeGaetjenstheunknownfootballstarfromaprominentHaitianfamilywashingdishesataSpanishrestaurantinHarlem.Gaetjenswasaone-hitwonderpluckedfromobscurityasmanymythssuggest.TheAmericanSoccerLeaguewasprofessionalinnameonly.Fewplayersatthattimemadealivingoffthesportandoftenhadtoskipmatchesorinternationaldutybecauseoftheirfull-timejobs.ManyplayersontheU.S.nationalteamknewnothingofJoebutEastCoastfansofthegameknewJoewell.WhileplayingforBrookhattanJoeledtheleagueinscoringin1950andattractedenoughattentiontobeselectedtorepresenthisadoptedhomelandatthe1950WorldCup.TheteamflewtoBraziltojoin14othernationsforthetournament.HeadingintotheWorldCuptheU.S.hadbeenpinnedas500-1favouritestowinthetournament.IntheteamsfirstmatchtheU.S.facedapowerfulSpainsquadthatwouldgoontofinishinfourthplaceandhelda1-0leaduntilthe75thminuteofthegamewhenthreequickSpanishstrikesturnedthematchonitshead.ItwouldbetheAmericassecondmatchofthetournamentthatturnedintoagamerememberedfordecades.TheU.S.teamwouldplaythepowerfulEnglishsquadtabbedas3-1favouritestowin.TothisdayEnglishplayersfromthe1950squadrecallahaphazardAmericansquadfullofcowboysthatarrivedatthestadiumwearingbootscowboyhatsandsmokingcigarspriortothematch.ExpectedtoeasilyrollovertheAmericanstheEnglishrestedtheirbestplayerforthegameandseemednonetoobotheredbytheAmericansastheycontrolledtheballfortheentiretyofthematch.Duringthe37thminuteU.S.midfielderWalterBahrlaunchedashotonnetfrom25yardsoutthatdidntseemsettochallengetheEnglishgoalkeeper.ThatwasuntilJoecamestreakingintotheplayanddivedheadfirstattheincomingshot.Gaetjenswasabletodeflecttheshotwithhishead.HisglancingblowalteredtheballscourseandsentitsailingintothenetastheEnglishkeeperwascaughtwrong-footeddivingtohisrightastheballwentleft.JoeGaetjensaHaitian-bornplayerplayingforhisadoptedhomelandhadjustlaunchedthesecondshotheardroundtheworldandsetinmotiononeofthegreatestfootballupsetsinhistory.FromtheretheAmericansdefendedfuriouslyandwithstoodatidalwaveofEnglishattemptstoequalise.Atthefinalwhistlethesceneinthestadiumwassurreal.BrazilianfanswereecstaticlargelybecausetheynowbelievedthatEnglandwasoutofthewayfortheirnationalteamtomakeatitlerun.GaetjenswascarriedoffthefieldbyBrazilianfans.AnUnttingEndforaHeroAsquicklyasJoecameontotheinternationalscenehedisappearedfromthelimelight.AfewmonthsaftertheWorldCupGaetjensdroppedoutofColumbiaUniversityandparlayedhissuccessattheWorldCupintoacontractwithRacingClubdeParisintheFrenchleague.AfluentspeakerofFrenchEnglishandSpanishitwasassumedthatJoewouldbeabletoadjusttolifeinFrance.ALLPHOTOSBBC 126KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolTravelkreolSportDespitehisyoungageGaetjensbodybegantodeteriorateonhimandaftermakingjustfourappearancesandscoringtwogoalsforRacingClubhewassentpacking.Hespentthe1952-53seasonwithlowerleaguesideAles.Afterthe1953seasonhoweveritwasapparentthathisstarhadrisenandwasnowonthedecline.Thoughhecouldstillsparkmagicthelikesofhis1950WorldCupwinnerhisbodywasfailinghim.Exertionbroughtonnosebleedsandhiskneeswerefailing.GaetjensreturnedtohisnativeHaititolivewhatmostwouldconsideranormallifeasidefromafewextravagances.HerejoinedhisoldclubEtoileHaitienneandevensuitedupforHaitiina1954WorldCupqualifieragainstMexico.Lateronhehostedhisfellow1950U.S.nationalteammemberswhentheteamvisitedHaitiforafriendlybuthisfootballlifewasover.In1955hemarriedhisfirstcousinLilianneandopenedasuccessfuldrycleaningbusiness.ThecouplehadthreechildrenandJoefilledhissparetimecoachingyouthsoccer.Buthisnormallifewasabouttobeshatteredbyhisfamilialconnectionsconnectionshewantedlittletodowith.WhenHaitianswenttothepollsin1957toelectapresidentFrancoisPapaDocDuvalierwaspittedagainstLouisDejoietowhomtheGaetjensfamilywasrelated.TheentirefamilysupportedDejoieintheelectionandintheaftermathmembersofJoesfamilysupportedacoupagainstPapaDoc.ApairofJoesbrotherscontinuedtheirsupportforacoupwhilelivinginexileintheneighbouringDominicanRepublic.TheattemptedcoupturnedPapaDocintoaruthlessparanoiddictatorwhousedhisTontonMacoutesbogeymenmilitiatoruletheislandthroughfearandharassment.WhiletheGaetjensfamilyhadsurvivedtheinitialcoupagainstPapaDoctheywouldnotbesoluckywhenJoesbrothersinexilewerecaughtaidingintheplanningofasecond.AfterPapaDocdeclaredhimselfpresidentforlifeon7July1964theremainingGaetjensfamilymembersfledHaitiallexceptforJoe.Hedidntbelievehewasindangerashehadnopoliticalaspirationsorconnectionshimself.UnfortunatelyhemiscalculatedhislevelofsafetyandtheTontonMacoutesabductedhimwithin24hoursofPapaDocsdeclaration.FromhereJoessadstorybecomesaguessinggame.TheassumptionbymanyisthatPapaDocsmilitiatookJoetotheinfamousFortDimanche.TheprisonhousedanyonePapaDoctookforanenemyandonanightlybasisprisonerswerelinedupatrandomandexecuted.ItwasrumouredandfewrefuteitthatJoewaskilledon10July1964.Hisbodywasneverfoundandhisdeathneverconfirmed.JoeGaetjensiseverybitanAmericansportshero.AtatimewhenfootballwasirrelevantinAmericaGaetjensandhisteammatesachievedtheimpossibleanddefeatedagiantofthegame.AsquicklyasJoeemergedfromobscurityhedescendedbackintoitanddiedunderunknowncircumstances.In1976hewashonouredbytheU.S.SoccerHallofFamewhenhewasinductedposthumouslyintoitsranks.ABOVEJOEGAETJENSBEINGCARRIEDALOFTAFTERTHEFAMOUSAMERICANFOOTBALLVICTORYAGAINSTENGLANDINTHE1950WORLDCUPINBRAZIL.BELOWJOEGAETJENSCENTREWITHFRIENDSINNEWYORK. 128KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSocialHowtobeTHEQUEENofYourLifeAskanyqueenwhatmakesherspecialandshelltellyouthatshesdifferentfromotherwomen.InhermindandinthemindsofhersubjectsshewaschosenbyGodtofulfillherrolethereforesheisnotsubjecttoanyearthlyauthority.Thethroneishersbydivineright.Whileyoumightnotwanttotakeyourrolequitethatfaryoucanbecomethequeenofyourownlifesimplybychangingyouroutlookandattitude.ChooseaMentorQueenToreallypsychyourselfuptobethequeenofyourlifeitsimperativethatyouchooseafamousqueenfromthepastorpresenttoemulate.LearnasmuchasyoucanaboutherthroughbooksdocumentariesandInternetwebsites.Whenyourereadytoslipintoyourroleasqueenimaginewhatyourfavouritequeenwoulddoinasimilarsituation.SomefamousfemalerulersforyoutoconsiderincludeQueenElizabethIQueenElizabethIIQueenVictoriaCatherinetheGreatMarieAntoinetteandQueenNefertitiofEgypt.QuitWorryingWhatPeopleThinkofYouInthewordsofQueenVictoriaTheimportantthingisnotwhattheythinkofmebutwhatIthinkofthem.Remindyourselfofthisquoteoftenwhenyouretemptedtowonderwhatothersthinkofyou.Ifyoufindyourselffeelinginsecureandworriedabouttheopinionsofothersaskyourselfwhetheraqueenwouldconcernherselfwiththeseopinions.TheanswerisAbsolutelynotAndnorshouldyou.BuytheBestItsawell-knownfactthatqueenshavethebestofeverything.Whileyouprobablydonthavethefinancialbudgetthataqueendoesyoucanstillselectqualityitemsasoftenaspossible.Lookforsaleswithhigh-priceditemsslashedtorockbottomandpurchasegently-useditemsthatarenormallypricedaboveyourbudgetsecondhandwhenyouhaveachance.Smartwomenhavemanagedtofurnishthehomesandclothethemselvesinawaytheycouldnevernormallyaffordbydevelopinganeyeforbargains.PamperYourselfWhileaqueensobligationsaremanyaqueenknowsthatshemustrechargeherbatteriesoftensoshesreadytoperformherroyalduties.Thesameistrueforyou.Whenyouretiredlaydowninadarkenedroomandrestuntilyourereadytoresumeyouractivities.Takeabubblebathtosootheyourachingmuscles.Dabexpensiveperfumeonyourwristsandbehindyourearstorejuvenateyourself.Rememberthatyoudeservethebest.Youreaqueenafterall.CommandRespectNoonewouldeverdaretreatthequeenofacountryinawaythatisanythinglessthanrespectful.Iftherearepeopleinyourlifewhorefusetoshowyoutherespectyoudeservedeterminetoputastoptoitimmediately.Ifsomeoneisnttreatingyouwithrespecttheydontdeserveinclusioninyourlife.Eithercuttieswiththemorteachthemhowtotreatyouwithrespectbycallingthemoutontheirbehaviour.InthewordsofformerFirstLadyEleanorRooseveltNoonecanmakeyoufeelinferiorwithoutyourconsent.Asyoucanseeyoudonthavetobebornintoaroyalfamilytoliveaqueenlylifestyle.Bytakingyourselfandyourdesiresseriouslyandstrivingtogetwhatyouwantyoutoocanbethequeeninyourlittlecorneroftheworld. KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015129kreolSocial129 130KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolSocialPicturetheperfectman.Heisgoodlookingchivalrousandsuccessful.Heisasharpdresserandanavidreader.Heisintelligentaswellasculturedandwell-travelled.Helovestoplaygolfwithhisfriendsontheweekendsandtravelstoexoticlocationsonceortwiceeveryyear.7ReasonsWhyHeWontCommitTheeligibleyetstubbornlySINGLEBATCHELOR KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015131kreolSocial131Heisclosetohisfatherandrespectfultohismother.Thereforeheseemstohavenofamilybaggage.Heisprobablythirtyfiveyearsoldorevenolder.Everywomanhehascomeacrossseemstoagreethatheisanextremelyeligiblebachelor.Howeverhehasneverbeenmarriedandseemstobeinnohurrytodoso.Heishardlyeversingleandalwayshasabeautifulwomaninhisarms.Nonethelesslikearunwayshowtheycomeandgo.Theeligibleyetstubbornlysinglebachelorfrustratesandpuzzleswomenalike.Yettheyfindhimirresistible.WhydoesheseemimpossibletopindownWhywonthecommittoanywomanHerearesevenreasons1.InfertilityHemaybesexuallyactiveandhaveincrediblesexualprowessbutifamancanthavechildrenheislikelytofeelratherashamed.Inanumberofculturestheabilitytoimpregnateawomanisthehallmarkofmanhood.Moreoversocietygenerallyexpectsthataftermarriagecomeschildrenandparenting.Thereforeamanwhoisinfertilewillavoidmarriagebecauseoftheseexpectationsaswellastosafeguardhisego.Ifyouaredatinganeligiblebachelorwhodoesnotwanttosettledownandhavechildrenthiscouldbeareason.Howeveryoucannottelljustbylookingathim.Inadditionmenareverydiscreteandsensitiveaboutwhattheyconsidertobetheirsexualinadequacies.Thereforedonotsimplyassumethatheisinfertileifhedoesnotwanttosettledown.Hewillopenuptoyouifhetrustsyouonehundredpercent.2.BaggagefromthepastBaggagefrompastrelationshipscaninfluenceamansdecisiononissuespertainingtomarriage.Menareextremelylogicalcreatures.Ifamanhasbeeninfailedrelationshipafterfailedrelationshipheislikelytodrawtheconclusionthathesimplynotgoodatrelationships.Thereforehewillopttofocusonwhatheisgoodatlikeworkandavoidthingshefeelsheisnotmadefor.Baggagefromchildhoodwillalsoinfluenceoursocialconditioning.Amanwhowitnessedamessydivorcebetweenhisparentswhenhewasyoungerwillprobablygrowupwithanegativeattitudetowardsmarriage.3.RomanceContrarytopopularbelieftherearemenouttherewhoarehopelessromantics.Thisisparticularlytrueifamanwasraisedbyparentswhoweredeeplyinloveandhadaperfectmarriage.ThereforesomementakealittlelongertogetmarriedbecausetheydonotwanttosettleforanythinglessthantheONE.SomemenhavealreadylosttheONEalongthewayandhaveacceptedthereisnohopeofeversettlingdown.4.SexandfreedomLetsbehonestfromamansperspectivesexhasbecomeentirelytooeasytogetthesedays.Duringpastgenerationswheresexbeforemarriagewasataboosexwasagreatmotivatorforamajorityofmentogetmarried.Intodayssocietymarriagemeansadifferentthingaltogetherformenlossoffreedom.Thereforesomemenhavedecidedtoputoffmarriageasthepayoffdoesnotseemworthit.5.FearSinglemenhavesomanyfearsaboutsettlingdown.Toponthelistincludefearofmarryingthewrongpersonfearofresponsibilitiesfearofdomesticstrifeaswellasthefearoflosingonesidentity.Thiscripplingfearofmarriagecanbeattributedtothenegativedepictionofmarriagebythemediaalongwithwitnessingnegativemaritalexperiencesoffriendsandfamily.Whateverthecausethisfearisenoughtodetereventhemosteligiblebachelorfrommarriage.6.PowerAmanwhoisaccomplishedinhiscareerandhasasenseofcontrolinhislifewillnoteasilygiveupthiscontrol.Mengenerallyspeakingarecreaturesofhabitwhogetstuckintheirwaysandgetcomfortablewithfamiliarroutines.Abachelorwilldecidenottogetmarriedifhethinksthecomfortablelifehehasworkedhardtobuildwillbeturnedupsidedownasaresultofgettingmarriedandhavingkids.Menwhoareparticularlykeenonensuringtheirsenseofpowerisntjeopardisedareeasytospotastheytendtodatewomenwhoaremuchyoungerthantheyare.7.MarriageisnotapriorityItsnotthathehatestheideaofmarriageitsnotthatheisinfertileitsnotthathehasbaggagefromthepastandneitherisitbecauseheisacontrolfreak.Somemenoptnottogetmarriedsimplybecausetheydonotwantto.Thatsit.Thesemenarepassiveaboutmarriage.Theycouldnotcarelessiftheygetmarriedornot.Suchmentendtobepassionateaboutotherthingslikecareerdevelopmentandpersonalachievements.Thereforetheyprioritiseonwhattheyfeelismoreimportantandremainindifferenttowardsmarriage.Allinallamansviewofmarriageisdifferentfromthatofawoman.Mostwomenviewmarriagefromapositivelight.Theyseeitasachancetosharetheirlifewithsomeonespecialwhilefulfillingtheirbiologicaldestinywhichentailshavingandrearingchildren.Menontheotherhanddonotalwaysviewmarriagepositively.Someviewitasalossoffreedomoraheftyfinanciallossincaseofadivorce.Ifyouencounterandevenfallinlovewiththeeligibleyetstubbornlysinglebachelorthewisestthingtodoistobeunderstandingandpatient.Nonethelessifgettingmarriedisapriorityforyoubeopenaboutit.Ifheremainsindifferentmaybeitstimetoconsiderwalkingaway. 132KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFoodIfyouregoingtotakethepleasureofpreparinggreattastingandhealthyfooditshouldalsobedeliciousinbothflavourandpresentation.AtmyLouisianaCreoleFoodClubmyguestsexpectthistobepartoftheirexperiencewhethertheyareovernightweekendorDinerdesDimanchelunchguestsForexamplerecentlyIhadthegreatpleasureofwelcomingtwodelightfulandwell-informedyoungLouisianaCreolestotheJean-BatisteAndreLaFleurCreolePlantationGuesthouseFoodClub.BeingCreoleculturalaficionadasbutchildrenofalatergenerationwhobothgrewupintherespectivecitiesofNewOrleansandBatonRougetheywerenotfamiliarwiththedeliciousandsavourycountryCreolemenuIwasabouttointroducethemto.IofcourseplannedamemorableandhealthfulculinaryandculturalexperienceforthislovelyyoungcoupleJeremyandLindsay.IbeganbyservingadeliciousSpringpresentationofmyhorsdoeuvretray.LayingdownabedoffresharugulauponanelegantMurano-purchasedleaftrayIselectedacombinationoffreshcherrytomatoeslargemushroomcapsbreadnbuttercornichonsorpickles.Iartfullyarrangedtheseitemsuponthetrayaddinganecklaceofcrackers.IpreparedasimplecrawfishdressingwithdelectableandfreshherbsandspicestowhichIalsoinfusedgoatcheeseandchristenedwithsmallspoonsofwarmedcranberrysauceandgarnishedwithchive.AKreolInternationalMagazineExclusiveLouisianaCreoleGourmetScholarJohnlaFleurIIsharessomeculinarysecretsfromhisLouisianaCreoleFoodClubLesRecettesdelaMaisonJean-BatisteAndrelaFleurorsdoeuvrenPetitRepasDejeuner 133KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December2014-January2015kreolFoodhampignonsfarcidecrevissesaujardinage1cupfreshpeeledcrawfishtailmeat12tsp.cayennepepper1tbsp.freshchoppedcilantro13tsp.freshcrushedgarlic14tsp.crushedgarlicsaltpeppertotaste14tsp.freshlimejuice12cupmayonnaise13tsp.freshdill12cupgoatcheesecreamcheeseifyouprefer2cupsfreshvariegatedarugularoquette4-6lg.mushroomcapssautedlightlyinwhitewineandgarlicbutter6cherrytomatoes2cubedspearsofbreadnbutterpickles1cupcranberrysauceMethodBlendallofthefirstcategoryofingredientstogetherinamixingbowlandthenplaceintoafoodprocessortoachievemousse-likeconsistencyortexture.Filleachpre-sautedmushroomcapwithmixture.Thenapply1tsp.warmedcranberrysauceovereach.PresentationLayeracolourfulplatterwfreshvariegatedarugulaandgarnishanecklaceofcrackersormini-toasts.Arrangecubedbreadnbutterpicklescornichonscherrytomatoesartfullywithinthenecklaceborder.Drizzlewithfreshchoppedchivesserve.Serves2-3guests.RingthebellandpresentwithaperitifofwhitewineorChampagne.CrawshstuffedmushroomcapswithfreshgardenselectionIngredientsByJohnLaFleurIISuggestedAperitifSherrycordials. 134KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December-January20142015kreolFoodaitredelaaison1lg.purpleeggplantunpeeledslicedin14inchmedallions4cupsoffreshshrimpcrawfishcrabmeat-peeledde-veined2cupsfriedbacon-crumbled12cupfreshcilantro12cupfreshFrenchbasil1tsp.freshrosemary1tbsp.sugarwhiteorbrownforcaramelizingsaltpepper1tsp.cayenne1pinchofgroundclove1pinchofcinnamon12headjuliennedonion1cupbacongreaseobtainedafterfrying2cupsAlfredosaucethinnedwith12cuphotwater13cuplemonjuice1cupchoppedgreenonionchives4-14inchslicesoffreshFrenchbreadMethodPlaceeggplantmedallionsintoalargeskilletofhotbacongreasewjuliennedonionaddingmeatsofchoiceandsugartocaramelizeuntilmedallionsaregoldenbrownandlimp.Onionsshouldbetranslucent.Addseasoningsandfreshherbs.OncetheherbshavemelteddownaddthinnedAlfredosauceandlemonjuice.Simmer3-4minutesPresentationServeoversingleslicesofFrenchbreaduponcolourfulbreakfastserviceplates.Aftermoisteningeachroundofbreadwithrichsauceplace2-3medallionsofeggplantoverFrenchbreadroundsasiflayeringacakeaddingspoonsfullofherbssauceovereach.Removeshrimpfromsaucewithperforatedspoonandgenerouslydistributeovereachserviceplate.Sprinklefriedbaconovertheshrimpherbsaucedrenchedgateauxoreggplantcakes.GarnishwwedgesoflemonoverlimesmallbouquetgarniofcilantrofreshdillFrenchbasil.Topwchoppedgreenonions.Serves3-4SuggestedaccompanimentsFreshassortedfruitbowlorfreshfigs-uncooked-wcrmefraicheorflavouredyoghurtchoice.Addsconeswithhoneyandcafe-au-laitornoirandyourguestswilleitherloveorenvyyou-lustfullyAlasanteetbonapetitmesamisCanbeadaptedasaLentenCreoleBreakfastbywithholdingbaconandaddinganotherchoiceofshellshIngredientsByJohnLaFleurII 135KREOLMAGAZINEISSUE11December-January20142015kreolFoodIngredientsForthepre-soaking3tablespoonsrum3tablespoonsbrandy3tablespoonscherrybrandy3tablespoonsport3tablespoonswater1teaspoonsAngosturabitterslevelteaspoongroundcinnamonlevelteaspoonnutmegfreshlygratedlevelteaspoongroundclovesteaspoonsaltteaspoonspurevanillaextract1leveltablespoonmolassessugar450graisins225gcurrants110gno-soakpruneschopped50gglaccherrieschopped110gwholecandiedpeelfinelychopped50gmixedchoppednutsForthecake250gself-raisingflour250gdemerarasugar250gspreadablebutter5largeeggsMethod1.Aboutsevendaysbeforeyouintendtobakethecakemeasureoutallthepre-soakingingredientsintoalargesaucepantickingthemoffasyouaddthemasitssoeasytoleavesomethingout.2.Afterthatalloweverythingtocoolcompletelythenpourthemixtureintoalargejarwithalidoranairtightplasticcontainerandleaveitinthefridgeforsevendaysshakingorstirringitaroundfromtimetotime.3.Whenyourereadytobakethecakepre-heattheoventogasmark1275F140C.4.Measureoutthefloursugarandsoftenedbutterintoaverylargemixingbowlthenaddtheeggsandeitherwhiskorbeatwithawoodenspoonuntileverythingisblended.5.Nowgraduallyfoldinthefruitmixtureuntilitsallevenlydistributed.Thenspoonthemixtureintothepreparedtinlevellingthesurfacewiththebackofthespoon.6.Bakethecakeinthecentreoftheovenfor3hourswithoutopeningthedoorthencoverthecakewithadoublethicknessofsiliconepaperandcontinuetobakeitforafurtherhouroruntilthecentrefeelsspringywhenlightlytouched.7.Coolthecakefor45minutesinthetinthenremoveittoawireracktofinishcooling.Whenitscompletelycoldwrapindoublesiliconepaperandthenfoilandstoreinanairtightcontainer.Theresnoneedtofeedthiscakeasitalreadyhasenoughboozebutitdoesimprovewithkeepingforabout1monthbeforecutting.reolehristmasCakeThisrecipeoriginatedfromTrinidadTobagobuthasbeenslighlymodied.Itinvolvesquitealotofalcoholandaweekspre-soakingbutitcertainlyisworththewaitByDeliaSmith gettingreadyfor2015www.papjazzhaiti.orgPACKAGESANDTRAVELwww.zoomsurhaiti.comwww.voyageslumiere.comPhilippeDodard8ss32s7s-s.8sssss8skssssss1200016000BELGIUMCANADACHILEFRANCEGERMANYMEXICOSpainSwitzerlandtrinidadunitedKingdomunitedStateSyellowjacKetSuSaraneeleecanadalaurentdewildefranceetiennecharleStrinidadmayaazucenauSaSebaStianjordanchilechardavoineuSahaititaboucomboft.joweeomicil9thedition1724januarycomeanddiScoverthemagicofhaitithroughthepapjazzfeStival11gueStcountrieSthe9theditionheadlinerS10artiStSfromhaitiandthediaSpora