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6ISSUE7October-December2013SoonLouisianadriverswillbeabletoextendtheirpersonalitieswithaprestigeautomobilelicenseplatethatproclaimsImCreoleandproud.ItsforagoodcauseteachingFrenchintheschools.Theyrenotavailableyetbutthesevanityplatesusuallyhaveadifferentcolourschemeanddesignfromthestandardplates.InthisanythingbutstandardspecialKreolissueonthecrolitofLouisianathedesignshouldremainthesameandthecolourschemewellitmightbeenhanced.OurgratitudegoeswellbeyondthebumpertoKreolmagazineforallowingustoshareherewithyoudearreadersadifferenttasteofadifferentLouisiana.ViveladiffrenceImhip.ThefirewasundoubtedlyturnedonalittletoolateundertheAmericanmeltingpotintheLouisianakitchentheGreatBlendingoftheCreoleStatehadalreadycookeddownandwassmotheredintovariouseclecticdishessoppedupbyamostun-vanillapopulacefarfromthemaddingmainstream.InthisissuewegivethepotagoodstirandsavourthearomaticCreolecultureidentityandraceintheBayouCountry.Suigenerissogood.Oftenover-lookedinthetellingoftheAmericanCreoleStoryisthemostuncommonofcommondenominatorstheNative-American.Nowthatweabsolutelygetfolkmedicineandbasketrytraditionsitistimetohearanothernarrativeoneboldlytoldbyacougarofsortsfromtheoutsidelookinginandstalkingthecollectiveamnesia.Itisatalefromthetimebeforetimeandonlytimewilltellifwechoosetolearntheselessons.SpeakingofgenrescanwesettherecordstraightonZydecoThatrecordhasbeenscratchedandevenwarpedeversincetheKingofZydecoCliftonChenierfirstrecordedAyTiteFille.FromjurtoLaLaandfromCreoletoZydecoleszaricosharicotshaveneverbeensaltier.ButifCreoleisafusionthingwithabackbeatofspoonsscrapingrubboardstaccatotothesongofthecicadawellonehastowonderwhatitsallsignifying.ItsaLouisianaBlackCreolesnapbeanphenomenon-andmancanyoudancetoitJoeHallisCreoleclassvaledictorianoftheOldSchool.HailingfromalonglineofCreolemusicianshisZydecoisasyncopatedcelebrationofresilienceandsurvival.Joeplaysupanddownthebayouandbeyondforavarietyofaudiencesfromthechildrenofsweetpotatodiggerstomillennialmimosasippershemakesemallcry.Buttherealcryingcomeswhenheplaysgigsfromtheheartandsoullikeatanabandonedslaveburialsite.FortheAfrican-Americanancestorworshipisoftentimesanuncharteredjourney.ThenthereisthebusinessofCreole.Nobodysbusinessismorebleedingedgethanthatoftheheritageentrepreneur.DustinCravinspromoteshisCreolecultureandthatcultureisopenforbusinessyetitalsoremainsopentointerpretation.ThecommodificationoftheCajunculturebackinthe70sreceivedamassivebumpfromEuropeanandCanadianFrancophoniewhiletheCreoleculturaleconomylayfallowontheLouisianaprairieintheshadowoftheCajunishotphenomenon.Butallthingscometopassagoodtime.TodaythanksmainlytotheextravaganceofZydecoandamoreroots-orientedpromotionofthecultureCreoleiskickingderrireThejewelinLouisianasCreolecrownwillshinebrightlyonOctober9-122013atthefirstU.S.meetingoftheninthannualinternationalAfricanDiasporaHeritageTrailConferenceADHDinLafayette.ItmakessensetoholdthisprestigiousgatheringinthedeepestoftheSouthandthemostnorthernoftheCaribbean.FromtheearlydaysofthecolonyLouisianawasaveritablehubofdiasporaSlavespouredinthroughtheportofNewOrleansIndianswereenslavedandorremovedandexpelledAcadiansadoptedtheswampsandprairiesassanctuary.Andtherouxthickens.WiththeAmericanCivilWarcamethegreatout-migrationofAfrican-Americansfollowingthatdrinkinggourdtoallpointsnorth.Butnoteveryoneleft.OneofthetrailsbeingdevelopedtodayisinPromiselandasmallcommunityofCreolesinSt.MartinParish.TheirnamesareJeanBatisteHippolyteWiltzLedetandCharles.TheydescendfromHaitiansFrenchSwissandanynumberofNativeAmericantribes.InthewoodsnearPromiselandonthebanksofBayouTechethereisaburialsite.Atthisover-grownburialsitenonameshavebeenleftnopraisesreporteditisasthoughtheyhadneverbeen.Andtheyhavenomemorialasthoughtheyhaveneverbeenborn.TheADHTconferencewillexaminethevalueofhonouringancestorssuchasthesewiththedevelopmentofhonourabletrails.SoifyouhappentobedrivingdowntheCreoleNatureTrailoralongBayouTecheormaybedownLafayettesTwelfthStreetandyounoticeacarwithapersonalizedlicenseplateshoutingoutImCreoleandproudgoaheadandpullthemover.Askthemwhytheyreproud.Thatmayjustbeanotherstory.CharlesLarroquePrsidentLouisianelacarteGuestEditorGuestEditorial 10ISSUE7October-December2013PhotoS_BuckleyShutterstockPhotoFeatureflash 16ISSUE7October-December2013PhotoS_BuckleyShutterstock 17kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013HisExcellencyGARVINNICHOLASOnaMissiontoPromoteTRINIDADANDTOBAGOintheUKJustasanygoodcorporationneedstoputforwardapublicfacetorepresentitsinterestssotoodoesanynationlookingtoincreaseinternationaltiesthroughtradeeconomicsandtourism.FortheislandnationofTrinidadandTobagoitisnotenoughtosimplyletthetropicalallureoftheislandsthemselvesdrawintheinternationalcommunity.Inorderfortheworldtotrulyknowwhatacountryhastooeritneedsanindividualwillingtotoutthebenetsofinternationalrelations. 19kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013EducationandEarlyCareerLikesomanyoftheindividualschosenfordiplomaticmissionsMr.Nicholasisahighlyeducatedandsociallyawareperson.AsayoungmanheattendedprimaryschoolinPortofSpainbeforegoingtoTrinityCollegeinhishometownofMaraval.AftercompletinghisstudiesatTrinityCollegeMr.NicholaswentontostudylawatOxfordBrookesUniversityUKbeforeattendingtheInnsofCourtSchoolofLaw.WhilehemaybeaBarristerbyprofessionMr.Nicholashasbeeninvolvedinpoliticssincehisearly20s.DuringhisinterviewwithKreolMagazineMr.NicholasrecountedhispathintopoliticsfromayoungageGrowingupIalwayshadasocialconsienceandonedaysomepoliticianscametomyhomeandaskedmetocontestlocalgovernmentelection.Iwas23andIwasappointedtoanadvisorybodyatthelocalgovernmentandwonmyrstelectionat25andbecameaCounsellor.OnceIenteredpoliticsthebughadbittenmeandIhavealwayshadalove-haterelationshipwithpoliticsinasense.LoveinthesensethatwhenIgetthingsdoneImextremelypleased.Hatebecauseofthemanyfrustrationsthatyouexperienceintryingtogetthingsachievedinthepoliticalarenaandthegamesthatyouhavetoseeplayedoutinthepoliticsateverylevel.Mr.NicholashaspreviouslyservedasatemporarySenatorintheUpperHouseofParliamentinTrinidadandTobagoastheLeaderoftheMovementforNationalDevelopmentandwasevennamedthenationsfirstPressSecretaryin2010aheadofhisappointmentastheHighCommissionertotheUK.BringingHisTalentstoLondonItistheresponsibilityoftheHighCommissioneroftheRepublicofTrinidadandTobagototheUKtofosteranenvironmentofinterconnectivityamongthetwonationsandMr.Nicholasappearsperfectlypositionedtoachievethataimforbothsides.Headmitstotheimportanceofhispositionandthedifficultlyhefacesasaresultofhisnationsstature.Everynationontheplanetseekstohaveanaudiencewiththeworldpowersandhavesomeinfluenceondecisionsmadeataninternationallevel.AsarepresentativeofTrinidadandTobagoitisMr.NicholasresponsibilitytobethevoiceofhispeopleinLondon.HisdutiesincludecallingattentiontothebenefitsofarelationshipbetweenhiscountryandtheUK.Mr.Nicholasdoesnotshyawayfrompointingoutallthathishomelandhastoofferontheworldstage.WhilepetroleumandrelatedindustrialsectorshavelongbeenessentialSteel-drummerfromCISBandTrustplayingsteeldrumsattheNottingHillPanoramaChampionships.PhotoCliveChilvers 27kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013ShaquilleONealandwifeShaunie.PhotoSBuckley 32ISSUE7October-December2013WellknownasthecapitalofCajuncountryLafayetteisalsothehomeofthefirstcollegeinLouisianatointegrateandhasalsolongembraceditsCreolerootsandpeoples.Thethemeofthe2013conferenceinLafayetteisSeekingthePromiseLandtheCreoleJourney.OfferingauniqueandinspiringlearningenvironmentforthosecommittedtodevelopingandenhancingAfricanDiasporaheritagedestinationstheconferenceseeksamoreintegratedunderstandingoftheAfricanexperienceintheAtlanticandCaribbeanworldsandinvitesattendeestoexperienceCreolecommunitiesparticipateinprofessionaldevelopmentandexplorenewtrendsandideasexaminemodelheritagetrailprogramsandestablishinternationalnetworksaroundandthroughCreoleculture.TheconferencewillbeginatVermilionvilleafolklifemuseumfeaturingthelifeoftheCajunsandCreoles.The23-acreparkislocatedontheVermilionRiverandfeatures18structuresinalivinghistorymuseumsettingwillfeatureapresentationoncreolefoodandtraditionalmedicineaswellasaperformancebyrenownedZydecomusicianChubbyCarriereacreoledinnerbuffetandapageantpresentationbyMardiGrasandAvoyelsIndiansofSouthwestLouisiana.AmongmanyexpertsfromaroundtheworldfeaturedkeynotepresentationsincludenotedscholaroftheearlyAfricanexperienceintheAmericasDr.IbrahimaSeckFilippeSavadogoAmbassadoroftheInternationalOrganizationofFrancophonieandworldfamousNationalPublicRadiohostNickSpitzerRootstoRoutesCreatingtheCreoleHomelandwithMusicandDance.OtherpanelswilldiscusstopicsrangingfromCulturalTourismandEntrepreneurshiptothevibrancyoftheCreoleFrenchLanguagesfromtheroleofAfricanAmericanmuseumstonewresearchonthetransatlanticSlaveTrade.TheAfricanDiasporaHeritageTrailinitiativebeguninBermudabutrepresentstheentireAfricanDiasporacommunitypromotessociallyconscioustraveltositesidentifiedasrelevantandimportanttotheglobalnarrativeofpeoplesandculturesofAfricandescent.ItisdesignedtoeducatevisitorsandsafeguardthecorevaluesandcreativityofAfricanculturesandhistory.ThustheconferencewillfeatureextensivetoursoftheareasCreoleheritagesitesandvibrantcommunities.OnetourwillfocusontheAfricanheritagesitesbetweenLafayetteandNewOrleansandwillincludeSaintMartinvillesAfricanAmericanmuseumwhichtellsthestoryofthearrivalofAfricanstoLouisianaandthedevelopmentoftheareasFreeAfricanIndigenousPeopleofColourcommunity.RunningthroughLouisianasAcadianheartlandBayouTecheattractednotonlythewell-knownFrenchCanadianexilesbutalsoawidearrayofotherFrench-speakingimmigrantsincludingcreolizedAfricanAmericansbroughttotheregiontoworkvastsugarplantations.Manyremainedenslavedbutanumbergainedtheirfreedomthroughvariousmeansoften 34ISSUE7October-December2013KUGRGOODBEARNaissanceofKREOLThecougarsstrengthandagilityforexampleisassociatedwithbalance-notonlyofmindbodyandspiritbutalsoofthejudicioususeofpower.Thebearwithhishibernatingnatureislikenedtodeepintrospectionandawareness.LipanApachetribalcouncilmemberKugrGoodbearisayoungKreolwiththesequalitiesthatseemtoemanatefromhisaurawithouthimevenspeakingaword.OnarecentsteamyfullmoonliteveninginconcertwereallofthesoundsyoudexpectfromtheplacewheretheLouisianaprairiemeetsthebayou.Cicadasfrogscricketsandowlswerejoinedbyanynumberofflyingthingsthathappentozipbyyourearonwhatfeltlikethedownbeatasyncopatedcacophonyanancientsongdatingtothedawnofcivilization.ItbecameeerilyapparentthattheseetherealsoundsformtheinspirationfortheCreolemusicreferredtoasZydeco.ThisNativeCreolemusicprovidedtheaptlyplacedsoundtracktoKugrstellingoftheLipanApachesemergencestorywhosetitleroughlytranslatestoNaissanceoftheKiller-of-Enemies.CandeLipanforhello.PeopleasweknowthemtodaywerentthefirstpeopleyouknowKugrarticulatedintheslurredstaccatoindicativeofNativespeakclearlystemmingfrommuchtimespentwiththeeldersofhispeople.WhathappenswhenyoucrossacougarwithabearCommonamongmanyNativeAmericanpeoplesistheideaoftotemsortheexpressionofanimalcharacteristicsinhumans.byEthanJordanKugrGoodbear. 35kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013Inthebeginningallthewindswaterslandsstonesandtreeswereallpeoplespeakingonelanguageandevenbeforethebeginningatthetime-before-timeallofthepeopleweredowninthelowerworldwhereonlydarknessexistedHisstorygoesontotellhowthefirstLipancametosettleintheirhomelandinwhatistodaysoutheastTexas.Itcontinueswithharrowingtalesofheroesbattlingenemiesbothinhumanandspiritualform.WithKugrstellingofthesestoriesitisclearthatheisadeeplyspiritualpersonandheinternalizesthemonmanylevelsasentertainmentasoralhistoryassymbolismbutmostimportantlyasanintegralpartofwhoheis.ThatskindawhatitmeanstobeCreoletosaysomethingonceandhaveitbereceivedbytotallydifferentpeopleyetthecentralmessageremainsthesame.KugristheyoungestmemberoftheCannecibandoftheLipanApachecouncilaresponsibilityhefeelsinadequatetoassumeyetdoessowithhumilityandaconfidenteyetowardtradition.WhentheeldersaskedmetojointhecouncilIwasspeechlessforawhilethenIrealizedthatitmustbethiswayforsomereasonandIbegantoacceptit.TheLipanhavealonghistoryofinteractionwithnotonlytheSpanishbutTarahuamaraYaquiandotherNativeAmericanpeoplesfromNorthernMexico.InfacttheLipanApachelanguage-thatwestillspeakbytheway-isaneasterndialectofApachewhoselandsspanpartsofCaliforniaColoradoArizonaNewMexicoandTexas.HowtheLipangottoLouisianaandbegantheirinfluenceonwhatitmeanstobeaLouisianaCreoleisastorythatiseerilysimilartothatoftheAfricaninfluenceonLaCreolit.TheWhiteManhadalreadyarrivedintheformofSpaniardsandtheLipanwereonmoreorlesscordialtermswiththemthoughstillmaintainingacautiousdistrustoftheseforeigners.ThearrivalhoweveroftheSpaniardsoftheEastakatheFrenchchangedthisdynamicforeverastheNortenosaconfederationofNorthernTexastribesComancheCaddoandWichitaalignedwiththesenewWhiteMen.AfterlosingawarthousandsuponthousandsofLipanweretakenintoslaveryinLouisiana.AtthispointtheslavetradewithAfricahadjustbegunandthephenotypicsimilaritytotheseAfricansmorethanlikelyfacilitatedthisprocessofenslavementoftheLipan.TheLipanarehistoricallynotedasbeingofabrownorcoppercomplexionandhavingalldifferenttypesofhair.WhensenttotheLouisianaTerritorytheLipanweredispersedasfarawayasMissouri.SomewereeventradedasfarasNorthCarolina.AlargebandhoweversettledaroundtheareabetweenLafayetteandBreauxBridge.ThisisquiteliterallywheretheLouisianaprairiemeetstheswampsandisindicativeoftheborderlandswheretheLipantendtoresidethelastplaceswherepeopleare.OurconversationcontinuedlateronatriptoBatonRougeinsearchofdocumentationofKugrspeopleslandholdingsatthetimeofLouisianastatehood.AgoalforthepeopleistoobtainfederalrecognitionofthetribebytheUSGovernment.Thiswouldentitlethemtoessentiallyoperatetheirowncountry.Peopletendtothinkthattribesseekrecognitionforthepurposeofthemoneyandbuildingcasinos.Wejustwanttobeautonomousandwerehistoricallyafightingpeoplejustthesedaysfightingtakesdifferentforms.Weadapt.Theensuingconversationwenteverywherefromwaste-to-energypowerplantstoaNativeAmericanUniversity.TheseareclearlynotthekindofIndiansoftheoldwesternmovies.BeadsmadebyKugrGoodbear.AfterlosingawarthousandsuponthousandsofLipanweretakenintoslaveryinLouisiana. 38ISSUE7October-December2013MOVERSShakersDustinCravinsbyEthanJordanYouknowyouresomewhereneartheheartofCreolecountrywhenthedescriptionofwhatsfordinnerissimplymeatandrice.Revealingtheexactdetailsofwhatgoesoninthepothoweverisborderlineheresy.NeedlesstosayCreolefolkaroundOpelousasLouisianaknowexactlywhattimeitiswhenmeatandriceisonthemenu.ThechefdujourhereisDustinCravinsaproudyoungcountryCreoleandimportantbusinesssavvyvoiceintheCreolecommunity.Onthisoccasionthemeatandricereferredtoisslowlysmotheredbeefaccompaniedbyblack-eyedpeasfreshsausagetomatoesfromDaddysgardenandsomeofMamaspickledpeppers. 39kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013NoauthenticconversationaboutCreolesinsouthernLouisianacanexistwithoutmentioningtheCravinsfamily.ThesearesomeproudcountryfolkdowninMallethalf-waybetweenOpelousasandEunicewhorespectsauthenticqualitywhileunderstandingthatittakestimetoachievethatquality.AndtheyhaveacrystalclearunderstandingofwhatitmeanstobeCreole.WithrespecttotheCreolecultureDustinisperhapsmostwidelyassociatedwithcarryingonthefamilytraditionoftheZydecoExtravaganzaanannualone-dayCreolemusicfestivaltrailridebontempsheldonthegroundsofEvangelineDownsracetrackandcasinoRacinoinOpelousas.StartedbyDustinsfatheranduncletheZydecoExtravaganzaoriginatedasalocaltelevisionshowofthesamename.Mydaddyandunclestartedthiseventover25yearsagoasaplatformtohighlightourculturetothecommunityandtheworld.Itwasandstillisapowerfulwaytoshowcaseourgiftsandvaluetosociety.OvertheyearstheExtravaganzahasgrowntobecomeoneofifnotthelargestZydecoeventintheworldwithatotaleconomicimpactinthemillionsofdollars.SomeCreolecowboyscanwhoopitupbuttheCravinshavealwaysfoundawaytokeeptherougherelementawayfromtheireventstherebycreatingenvironmentsthatarefunforeveryone.EverybodyknowswhenyougotoaCravinseventitisgoingtobesafeauthenticandyouregonnahaveagoodtime.Ihavenochoicebuttomaintainthattradition.ThoughtheExtravaganzaisthecrownjewel32-year-oldDustinhasalreadycuthisteethonT.V.radioandhasatonepointownedoneofthepremiervenuesontheZydecocircuitRichardsClubpronouncedREE-shards.CurrentlyhesthemarketingandoperationsmanagerattheRacinowhichmakeshimresponsibleforbookingthebestpayinggigsforareaZydecomusicians.Itisnotunusualforayoungandupcomingbandtoearn20kinayearjustonthecasinogig.Alargerbandcanearnupwardsof50k.ThisisaresponsibilitythatDustindoesnottakelightlylargelybecausethelocalmusiciansthatarenotbookedwillnotallowhimto.IcantonlybookCreolebandsasthereareotherdemographicsandcorporateintereststoappealtothelocalfolksletmehearitwhenIbookabandtheyveneverheardof.ThearomaofgravycaramelizingintheubiquitousoblongsilverironpotsetthecontextfordelvingintothequestionofwhatitmeanstohimtobeCreoleontheprairiesofLouisiana.DustinsshortanswerFrench-speakingpeopleofcolour.FullyawarethatthisparticulardefinitionmightnotresonatewithotherCreolehotspotslikeCaneRiverorGrandMaraiswhotendtoidentifyasbeingnon-blackhemeticulouslyenumeratedfivecharacteristicswhichhadobviouslycongealedoveryearsofthoughtfuldebateinfluencedbytheneedtodifferentiatetheCreoleidentityfromthewidely-knownCajunbrandandidentity.1Deeptiestoagriculture2AdistinctivecuisineDustinCravinsleftwithMorrisDayAmericanmusiciancomposerandactor.HeisbestknownastheleadsingerofTheTime.DustinCravinsleftwithKeithFrankZydecoMusicianfromLouisiana. 40ISSUE7October-December2013Anintenseagriculturaltraditionistobeexpectedinthesubtropicalprairieregionwherealmostanythingcanbegrown.RicecornsweetpotatoesokrabeanspepperstomatoesandallkindsofgreensarejustaglimpseofthethingsoneseesintheendlessrowsoffarmlandaroundMallet.Nottobeunderstatedarethetraditionsofanimalhusbandryandthetrail-ridinghorseculturethatstemsnaturallyfromthat.EvenIraiseafewlilcattle.Youcantkeepallofyoureggsinthesamebasket.Thediscussiononagricultureleadsnaturallytothatofthecuisine.MuchtothechagrinoftheCreolecommunityatlargeisthebrandingoflocalcuisineasCajun.GouptoAcadieDustinpointsoutandseewhattheyeatandcomebackhereandseeifitlooksandtastesanythinglikewhattheyclaimhereastheirtraditionalfood.Uptheretheyeatcoldunseasonedlobsters.MostofwhatweeatthattheycallCajuneithercamefromherealreadyorwasbroughtoverfromAfricaandtheCaribbean.Aswiththefirstdefinitivecharacteristicsthesecondtwoareintimatelywoven.3AhistoryofFrenchlanguage4ApredominatelyCatholicfaithThoughincreasinglyProtestanttherootsofCreolecultureareplantedfirmlyinthetraditionsoftheRomanuLeVieuxVillageinthecityofOpelousasoffersvisitorsaglimpseintorurallifearoundthetimeSt.LandryParishwasformed.ThevillageincludesoneoftheoldestCreolehomeswestoftheMississippiRiverandacountrystoreanddoctorsofficefromtheearly19thCentury.ThecenterpieceofthevillageistheVenusHousewhichwasoriginallylocatedinruralnorthwestSt.LandryParishintheGrandPrairiecommunity.ItisbuiltofbousillageamudSpanishmossstrawandanimalhairmixtureandconstructedusingmortiseandtenonbeams.MostofwhatweeatthattheycallCajuneithercamefromherealreadyorwasbroughtoverfromAfricaandtheCaribbean. ISSUE7October-December201342CreoleCultureIdentityandRaceintheBAYOUCOUNTRYbyChristopheLandry 44ISSUE7October-December2013WhentheFrenchcrowncededLouisianatotheCompanyoftheIndiesin1717NantesFranceGoreSenegalPort-LouisMauritiusSaint-DenisLaRunionandNewOrleansbecameintimatelyrelated.Forinstancebetween1721and17453818slavesweretransportedfromSenegambiatoLouisianawithroughlyequalnumbersdestinedfortheMascareigneIslands.InadditionBretonsPicardsandNormandscametorepresentthelargestFrancophoneelementsinearlyFrenchLouisianaandintheFrenchIndianOceanislands.NotsurprisinglyinLouisianaandintheMascareignesvirtuallythesameCreolelanguagedevelopedthefirstlengthywrittenexamplesofwhichdatebackto1745inMauritiusand1748inLouisiana.Asearlyas1710native-bornLouisianiansofLatincultureself-identifiedasCrole.SlaveandfreetanbrownyellowandfairhaveusedCreoletodifferentiatethemselvesfromAnglophonesinNorthAmerica.WhereSpanishCreoleandFrenchlanguageswerespokenandCatholicismpracticedinColonialLouisianapeopleweresuretodefinethemselvesasCreole.ThisdistinctionbetweenAmricainandCrolebecamemorepronouncedafter1812whenLouisianaofficiallybecameanAmericanstateandcontinuedaftertheCivilWarwhenAnglophoneAmericasbinaryracialsystemcametoplayamoreimmediateroleinthesocioeconomicdestinyofLouisianians.Latinsolidarityinpre-warLouisianaquicklymorphedintodebatesoverwhowaslegitimatelywhiteandwhowasblackduringReconstruction1868-1888.ThereconstructedconstitutionofLouisianawasthemostradicallyexecutedinthehistoryofnationextendingfullcitizenshiptonewlyfreedslavesraciallydesegregatingalleducationalinstitutionsandpublicvenuesandpermittingpersonsformerlybarredfrommarriagetomarry.BitterresentmentquicklymountedamongSouthernersdesirousofareturntothegoodoldofdaysoftheConfederacywhencitizenshipequalprotectionandmobilitywereprimarilygrantedtowhites.From1891to1954aseriesofstatestatutesandcityordinancesknownasJimCrowlawswerepassedandusedasinstrumentstodisfranchiseandeconomicallyhandicapnon-whitesthuscreatingamorehardenedracialcastesystem.HoweverassectarianismandculturalchasmspersistedinLouisianabetweenAnglophonesandLatinoswhiteandnon-whitedegreesofsocialfluiditywerestillcommoninCreolehearths.AsoneJesuitPriestobservedin1957asfarasAmericanswereconcernedCatholicCreoleswereviewedaslawbreakersfortheirliberalviewsonrace.ThecombinationofCreoleparochialismFrancophoneCatholicclergymenandrejectionofAmericanvaluescontributedtotheretentionofFrenchandCreolelanguagesandLatinidentitywellintothe20thcenturybutwithatwist.TodayunlikeotherCreolesLouisianaCreolesdonotidentifyasCreolebecausetheyspeakCreoleorbecausetheyspeakFrench.IndeedmostCreolesinLouisiananowspeakEnglishasaprimaryorasamaternallanguage.DuetothefactorsofAmericanracialbinarismindustrializationxenophobiaandAnglocentrismCreolesfoundthemselvesinaworldwheretheFrenchlanguagenolongercarriedeconomicweight.In1921theAmerican-heavyLouisianastategovernmentpassedameasureestablishingEnglishastheonlylanguageofinstructioninbothprivateandpublicschools.ThreeyearslatertheFederalGovernmentpassedtheImmigrationActof1924whichsetquotasonthenumberofimmigrantsabletomigratetotheUnitedStates.SuddenlytheFrancophone-dominantCatholicChurchofLouisianawascutofffromitssourceofclergypersonsinFranceBelgiumSwitzerlandandCanadatobereplacedbyAmericans.AfterWorldWarIIsermonsinFrenchrapidlydeclinedandpublicandCatholicschoolsnowwereconductedentirelyinEnglish.ManywhowentofftowarreturneddeclaringJaipartiunCroleorFranaismaisjairevenuunAmricain.Asearlyas1710native-bornLouisianiansofLatincultureself-identiedasCrole. 46ISSUE7October-December2013DR.CAROLEBEROTTEJOSEPHAnInspiringHAITIANACADEMICBorninPort-au-PrinceDr.BerotteJosephgrewupinBrooklynUSA.HerfamilyemigratedtotheU.S.in1957whenshewasonlyeightyearsold.TherewereonlyafewHaitiansintheU.S.atthattimebutshewasraisedinamulticulturalenvironmentandshelearnedtospeakfourlanguagesfluentlyEnglishCreoleSpanishandFrench.TheeldestdaughterofateacherandanurseDr.BerotteJosephalwaysknewthatshewantedtoteach.AccordingtothearticleInspiringHaitienneCaroleBerotteJosephPhDpublishedinHaitienneMagazineonJanuary232012theinspirationalacademicrememberedthatOnsnowdaysandbadweatherdaysIwouldlineupthekidsandIwouldleadinplayingschool.TheambitiousyoungwomanobtainedherBachelorsdegreeinSpanishandeducationfromtheCityUniversityofNewYorkCUNY.Shetaughtatadaycarefacilitywhileshestudiedforherdegree.ShethenbecameabilingualelementaryTheappointmentofDr.CaroleBerotteJosephasthePresidentoftheMassachusettsBayMassBayCommunityCollegein2005delightedHaitians.Dr.BerotteJosephwasthefrstHaitian-bornU.S.collegepresidentandtherstwomanpresidentofMassachusettsBayCommunityCollege.HeraccomplishmentsincludedevelopingneweducationprogrammeshelpingHaitianschoolstudentsandpromotingthehistoryandcultureofHaiti.Dr.CaroleBerotteJoseph 48ISSUE7October-December2013PETRUSCOMPTONHelpingPromoteDevelopST.LUCIANCultureInaworldthathasseencenturiesofturmoilgenocideandethniccleansingtheregrettablelossofpeopleandcultureshasoccurredtimeandagain.Individualscanmovetopreserveanddeveloptheircultureforfuturegenerationsbutsometimesactivismneedsahelpinghandfromwillinggovernmentswiththeresourcestogivesuchmovementtraction.OntheCaribbeanislandnationofSt.Luciathepublicandprivatesectorhavecometogethertodojustthat.Overadecadeagothegovernor-generalofSt.LuciasignedintolawtheCulturalDevelopmentFoundationActtohelppreservepromoteandfurtherdeveloptheuniquecultureoftheislandsothatitcouldbebetterunderstoodandremainasasignificantforceinthelivesofthenationsyoungergenerations.RecentlyPetrusComptonsatdownwithKreolMagazineforaninterviewtodiscusstheorganizationthatwascreatedbythisactitsactivitiesonSt.Luciaanditsvisionforthefuture.Thetougheststrugglethatanyculturefacesisthebattletopreserveandpromotethemostbasicidealsthatidentifyonegroupfromanother.PetrusCompton 56ISSUE7October-December2013EarthquakesEarthquakesrarelyaffecttheSeychellesbecausetheislandslayalongwayfromtheedgeoftheAfricantectonicplate.ThisdistinguishestheislandsfromHaitianotherCreolecountrywhichissituatedneartectonicplates.HaitioftensuffersfromearthquakesbecauseofthefrictionbetweentheCaribbeanplateandtheNorthandSouthAmericanplates.Theseplatesslideagainsteachotherandthefrictionbetweenthemcancreateimmenseearthquakes.Eventheterrifyingtsunamiof2004onlyhadaminoreffectontheSeychelles.TwopeoplediedandthetsunamialsodestroyedabridgeinVictoriathecapitalcity.TheSeychelleswasextremelyluckybecausethetsunamicausedhundredsofthousandsofdeathsinseveralcountries.Hazardssuchaswildanimalsandnaturaldisastersaboundinmanyothercountries.HowevertheSeychellesremainsrelativelyfreefrombothofthesedangers.Naturaldisasterssuchasearthquakesandcyclonesrarelyaffecttheislands.TheclimateisalsogentlesotheSeychellesusuallyenjoysfreedomfromdroughtsandfloods.Therearealsonodangerousanimalsontheislandsalthoughtouristsneedtobewareofsharks.ThereisalsononeedtoworryabouttheriskofcontractingtropicaldiseaseswhenstayingontheSeychelles. 57kreolFeatureISSUE7October-December2013CyclonesTheSeychelleslieoutsidethecyclonebelt.HowevercyclonesintheIndianOceancancausegreyandwindyweatherbetweenDecemberandMarchsothisisnotthebesttimetovisitthecountry.Itcanalsobeaffectedbymonsoonrainsbutthesearerare.TheweatherusuallystayswarmmostofthetimethisisoneofthereasonswhytheSeychellesisregardedasatropicalparadise.Thetemperaturegenerallyremainsabove230Cduringtheyearsotouristsdonthavetoworryaboutsufferingfromextremelyhotorcoldweather.TheaveragetemperatureintheSeychellesis290C.DangerousAnimalsSeveralcountrieshavemanydangerousanimals.Australiaforexampleaboundswithcrocodilesandpoisonoussnakesandspiders.TheSeychellesbycontrasthavenocrocodilesandtheonlydangeroussnakeistheextremelyrareyellow-belliedsea-snake.However.reptilesflourishontheislandsbuttheyareatouristattraction.Thelizardsgianttortoisesandmarineturtlesalldrawnature-loverstotheSeychelles.Giantmillipedespalmspidersandwhip-scorpionscanbefoundintheSeychelles.Thesearenotlife-threateningbuttheycancauseunpleasantreactionsiftheyarehandled.Theislandsarehometolargespidersandalthoughthespiderscanseemfrighteningthereisnoneedtobeconcerned ISSUE7October-December2013kreolPhotographersCorner60 61ISSUE7October-December2013kreolPhotographersCornerBIRDPHOTOGRAPHY ISSUE7October-December2013kreolPhotographersCorner62AbouttheAuthorRetiredConsultantSurgeonBrianEllishasbeenanenthusiasticamateurphotographersincetheageof8whenhewasgivenaKodakBrownie127camera.Asateenagerhekittedoutadarkroomabovehisparentsgaragewhereheproducedmanylargeprints.ArmedwithtwoNikonFsheshotwithIlfordFP4andKodakTri-XexcellentBWfilmsoftheday.Fifty-fiveyearsandmanycameraslaterhenowusesaCanon5DMkIII.HislensesincludeaCanon17-40mmLseriesthepopular24-105LseriesandtheCanon70-300mmDOtelephoto.HealsohasaCanon24mmseriesIItilt-shiftlens.InthisseriesofarticlesBrianhopestosharehisenthusiasmandtipspickedupovermanyyears.Photographingourfeatheredfriendsisfascinatingfunbutoenfrustrating.WhatdoweneedforsuccessfulbirdphotosDigitalsinglelensreexDSLRcameraTelephotolens70-300mmisgoodtostartwithSturdytripodRemoteshutterreleaseFastmemorycardminimumof16GbItisquiteeasytogetsomereallynicephotosofbirdsonthegroundoraperchbriberywithbirdfoodusuallypays.Ausefultrickistosetthecameradisguisedifpossibleonatripod8-10feetawayfromabirdtableorfeedingareaandtaketheshotsusingawirelessremoterelease.ThesearentexpensivetheHamaCA-1ataround202331andwillworkupto30metresfromthecameraandjustaspressingthecamerashutteritoperatesintwostageslightpresstofocusandfullpresstofiretheshutter.EvenwhenperchedbirdsmovequicklysoitisimportanttosetafastshutterspeedIuseaminimumof1500thsecbutprefer11000thsec.IfthelightisgoodthiswillallowuseofanASAof200-400.Howeveryouwilloftenfindthatthelenswillbeworkingatornearfullaperturesofocusisvital.Ontheotherhandashallowdepthoffieldthatyouwillgetworkingatfullapertureusuallygivesapleasinglookwithablurredbackground.Tocapturebirdsinflightitisbesttohaveatelephotolensthatfocusesfast.Sportsphotographersuseverylargetelephotolensesoftensupportingtheweightonamonopodasatripodwouldbetoorestrictiveforthem.TheselensesarehugeastheyhaveaverylargemaximumaperturetheCanon600mmISIIf4.0weighsalmost4Kgjustshortof9lb.Theyarealsoexpensivethatsamelenswouldsetyoubacknearly100001162015500.IusetheCanonzoomf4.5-5.670-300mmdispersionopticsDOlens.Dispersionopticsallowslensmakerstoproducetelephotolensesthatareabout13lighterandsmallerthanusingconventionalrefractiveelements.Iusethathandheldtophotographbirdsinflight.MostDSLRcamerashaveasportssettingthatfeaturesfollowfocus.Withthisselectedahalfpressontheshutterwilllockfocusontoamovingtarget.Setthecameratotakecontinuousimagesforaslongasyouholdtheshutterdownthiswillvaryfromaround3-6imagespersecondtheactualratewillbedeterminedbythecameraandspeedofthememorycard.Whenyouhaveatargethalfpresstheshuttertoletthefocussingsystemlockonandthenkeeptakingpicturesforaslongasyoursubjectlooksgood.Asyouwillbetakingphotographsinburstsandwillprobablytakeseveralhundredatasittingyouwillneedadecentcapacityandfastmemorycard.Underthecircumstancesitishighlyunlikelythatyouwillbeabletocompose ISSUE7October-December201366ISSUE7October-December201366TIPSFORHelpingKidsFightTHEBACK-TO-SCHOOLBLAHS ISSUE7October-December201368ISSUE7October-December201368 79ISSUE7October-December2013kreolMusicMARLOWROSADOMUSICALGENRESThereareveryfewpeoplewhocanhaveanimpactonmillionsaroundtheglobewithoutbeingseenandrecognizedintheprocess.Thinkforamomentaboutthemyriadoffacesontelevisionsetsandnewspaperfrontpagesacrosstheglobethatarerecognizedfortheireortstosavetheenvironmentenactpoliticalreformorstriveforabettersociety.Allthoseindividualsarerecognizedfortheireorts. ISSUE7October-December201380Ontheotherhandtherearehundredsifnotthousandsofindividualsonthisplanetthatstrivetogivesomethingbacktotheirfellowhumanbeingsandreceivelittlerecognitionintheprocess.MarlowRosadoisonesuchindividual.Hehastoiledlargelybehindthescenesthroughoutanimpressivemusicalcareerthathasfeaturedmoreaccoladesforworkheproducedforothersthanforhisownmusicaltalents.RosadowasbornandraisedinPuertoRicoandhasembracedtheLatinmusicgenrethatissodominantinhishomelandashisinspiration.MusichasbeenapartofhislifesincehewasayoungchildandtraceshisloveofmusictoaChristmasgifthismothergavehimwhenhewas12yearsold.ThatChristmasRosadosmothergavehimanorganasagiftandhistalentblossomedfromthatonesimplegift.AlthoughRosadowouldgoontowriteandproducemusicforothersheneverquitplayingthepiano.ThoughnotasingerbytradeRosadohasanearforgoodmusicandremainsaverygiftedpianoplayertothisday.GenresItwouldseemthatRosadohasleftnostoneunturnedinhisquesttodiscoverandbecomeapartoftheLatinmusicgenre.Hissuccessfulworksincludewritingcomposingandperformingingenresrangingfromsalsarockandmerenguetohip-hopandreggaeton.RosadohasworkedwithsomeofthegreatestnameswithintheLatinmusicscene.HispastcollaborationsincludeproducingcomposingandperformingwiththelikesofCeliaCruzTejanasingerSelenaLarryHarlowTommyOlivenciaMarcAnthonyRicardoMontanerOlgaTanandDesmondChild.MorerecentlyhearrangedanddirectedthehornssessionsforRickyMartinslatestproduction.Withsomanywell-knownartistsonhislistofpastcollaboratorsonemightthinkitwouldbehardforRosadotosingleoutoneoccasionasmorememorablethanothers.HoweverwhenKreolMagazineaskedRosadojustthatquestionhestatedThereisalegendarygroupoutofPuertoRicomyhomelandthatIhavebeenlisteningtosinceIwasachild.TheyarethemostrespectedandlovedSalsagroupanditsextremelyhardforthemtouseotherpeoplesmaterialastheydoitallthemselves.Iwasfortunateenoughtowritenotonebuttwosongsfortwooftheiralbums.Itsortofputanamazingsealofapprovalonmywork.ThenameofthegroupisELGRANCOMBOandthetwosongsareMeDejoenelAireandUnNoSeQue.LifeBeyondMusicMusicwillalwaysplayaroleinRosadoslife.Ifyouaskthemanhimselfhewouldprobablytellyouthatmusicistoobigapartofhimtoeverbeseparatedbutthatdoesntmeanthatcomposingproducingandperformingareallthatmattertothisartist.AmarriedmanandfatheroftwingirlsRosadoadmitsthatbalancingfamilywithhismusicalcommitmentscanbedifficult.ThekeytosuccessinhisbalancingactaccordingtoRosadohasbeenhislovingwife.WhenaskedbyKreolMagazineifitwashardtomanagethatrelationshipwhileontheroadherepliedTheMarloRosadoyLaRiqueaband. ISSUE7October-December201382SWEETHomeJOEHALLbyCharlesLarroquePrsidentLouisianelacarteDuringthesummerof2012onthebanksofasouthLouisianabayouasmallgroupoffolksmadetheirwaythroughbriarscypresskneesandcloudsofmosquitoestothePromiselandAbandonedSlaveBurialSite.WithaNigerianpriestintowtheysetabouttoconsecratetheirancestorslyingthereinonce-forgottenshallowgraves.Aertheblessingoneofdescendantsoftheunsungheroesplayedhisaccordionamongtheironstakegravemarkers.InthelanguageofhisprogenitorsCreoleFrenchJoeHallsangHomeSweetHome. 83ISSUE7October-December2013kreolMusicJoeHallthe41-year-oldCreolemusicianfromEuniceLouisianaknowshismusic.Joeknowshorses.AndJoealsoknowsroots.YouarewhoyouaresaysthebigmanwiththeevenbiggersmileandhefreelyclaimstobeaproductoftheLouisianaCreoleholytrinityNativeAmericanAtakapa-IshakAfricanWolofandEuropeanFrench.JoeHallisamodern-daylivingtestamenttotheoriginalcreolizationprocessinitsmyriadmanifestationswherethebestofallavailableresourcesblendtogetherinacelebrationofresilienceandsyncopatedsurvival.Comingupinthe70stheHallfamilywasblessedwithahard-workingfatherfigurewhoprovidedineverywayforhisfamilyofsixoutthereonthesouthwestLouisianaprairies.EventhoughJoeneverhadtoworkinthefieldslikemostoftheCreolesharecropperssincethedaysoftheCivilWarhisisanoldsoul.DuringhisformativeyearsyoungJoedidnotpicksweetpotatoesbutinsteadbushelsofstories.Hedidnotnecessarilybreakcornbuthedidlendanattentiveeartothemanykernelsofancientwisdomfromhiselders.TheyrecognizedhimastheanointedoneandwillinglyJoeHallacceptedthetorchoftheCreoleculturalflame.Thehistoryofpre-CivilWarLouisianaiswellitscomplicated-nomatterwhostellingit.Itsnotexactlyblackandwhiteyetthecontrastsareoftenglaring.ManyskeletonslieinLouisianascontroversialpastsomeinthesplendidtombsoftheCitiesoftheDeadmanyintheforgottenpottersfieldsoftheMississippidelta.Theskeletonshiddeninclosetshoweverwerealuxuryfortheprivilegedwhosesecretswerecomfortablycloistered.OpentheCreoleschifforobeandonewaslikelytofindasharecroppersoverallsaweddingdressanoldpairofbootsbutnoskeletons.WithnosmallamountoffamilyprideJoeHallrelatesthestoryofaCreoleancestorwhoJoeHall.PhotoDavidSimpsoncajunzydecophotos.com ISSUE7October-December201386 87ISSUE7October-December2013kreolMusicBorninMartiniquethesinger-songwriterE.syKennengawritesmusicasrichanddiverseashisCaribbeanhomeland.BornintoafamilyofmusiciansandlivinginParisforthelastseveralyearsE.syKennengaiscelebratedforinfusingvariousculturalnuancesandlanguageinhismusic.MelodicinanyLanguagetheMusicalCharmsofE.syKENNENGA EXPERIENCEMARTINIQUE ISSUE7October-December201390J.CreoleisaninternationallymindedHipHopartistwhoiscurrentlybasedinTorontoCanada.BorninPetionvilleHaitiJ.CreoleiswellknownforincorporatingthesoundsoftheislandsintohismusicalplatformtoincludestylessuchasReggaeCompasandRapKreyol. ISSUE7October-December201394WhenwesaydesignersintalkingaboutCreoleJewelleryDesignweretalkingaboutonepersonandhersonwhomakethiscompanyspecial.CreoleJewelleryDesignhasbeeninbusinessinVictoriaBritishColumbiaCanadasince1991andwasfoundedbyCreoleCarmichaelwhooperatesthecompanyastheprimarygoldsmithplatinumsmithanddesigner.WorkingalongsidehersonTrentCreolehasbeendesigningjewelleryuniquetoeachofhercustomersforover20years.Theaveragejewelleryshoppingexperienceconsistsofbrowsingaselectionofmassproducedsetsbehindcasesinastorewhereonememberofagaggleofassociateswilleventuallydescendtoassistinfindingtherightpieceforthatspecialsomeone.ToCreolethisdoesntappeartositrightasthewaytoapproachsomethingasimportantasjewellery.CustomersatCreoleJewelleryDesignlookingforapiececanbringtheirideasintothestorewiththemandsitdownwithCreoleandhersoninperson.Ratherthanhavingtochoosefromsomeoneelsesdesignstheircustomersareinvitedtobeapartofthedesignprocess.WhethercustomersarelookingforanengagementsetorwantanheirloomcreatedtheywillfindwillingpartnersinCreoleandTrent.ThedesignprocessatCreoleJewelleryDesignstartswiththissitdownconsultation.CustomerscansharetheirvisionandbudgetwithCreoleandTrent.Noprojectmovesforwarduntilcustomersarehappywiththeconceptputforth.OncethatissettledtheprojectisinthetalentedhandsofCreoleandTrentwhowillcombinethecustomersvisionwiththeirskillstodesignatrulyuniquepieceofjewellery.AdifferentapproachtoworkingwithcustomersisnttheonlythingthatsetsCreoleJewelleryDesignapartfromothers.Visionandtalentedhandscanonlyachievesomuchinjewellerydesign.Sometimestheassistanceoftechnologyisneededtoensurethatapieceisdesignedtowithstandthetestoftime.Creoleemploys3DCADtechnologytoprovidecustomerswiththemostaccuraterepresentationpossibleforeachdesign.Handsketchesarenicebutwiththe3DCADtechnologyCreoleJewelleryDesigncanshowcustomersanaccurateportrayaloftheirdesignconceptbeforemovingforward.HightechdesignconceptsarenottheonlymodernsystemsinplaceatCreoleJewelleryDesign.21stcenturysocietyhasbecomeincreasinglyconcernedwiththefootprintitisleavingontheplanetandCreoleJewelleryDesignstandsalongsidethoseconcernedcitizensbymakingeveryeffortpossibletoproduceuniqueandbeautifulpiecesinaresponsiblemanner.Agreatdealofattentionwasbroughttothesubjectofconflictdiamondsduringthelate20thandearly21stcentury.ThecontinentofAfricahaslongbeendevastatedbystrifeanditsrichnaturalresourceswereoftenexploitedbyallsides.Nearlytwo-thirdsoftheworldsdiamondscomefromAfricabutduringmuchofthelate20thcenturythediamondsusedinjewelleryaroundtheglobewereharvestedbyindividualstakencaptivebywarlordsarmiesandothercombatants.Theseconflictdiamondswereharvestedatthecostofhumanlivesandsoldtofinanceinsurgencywaranddevastation.Inresponsejewellersaroundtheworldstartedlookingdeeperintothesourceoftheirpreciousgems.CreoleJewelleryDesigncommitsitselftousingonlythosepreciousgemsthatareethicallysourcedandtakesparticularprideinusingCanadiandiamondswheneverpossible. 96HighHeelsHOWTOWALKTALL ISSUE7October-December201398CHILDRENANDTHEIREYESwhatyouNEEDtoknowandDOAbouttheAuthorProfessorNizarK.HirjihasaportfolioofengagementsasaConsultantOptometristaContactLensPractitioneraClinicalScientist.Hehasbeeninvolvedinthousandsofoptometricpatientconsultationsoverthepast30yearsinamixofpart-timefull-timeindependentcorporateandacademicsettingsintheUK.Visionandvisualfunctionsinchildrendeveloprapidlyoverthefirstfewmonthsoflife.Bythetimeachildis4-6monthsolddetectingdifferencesincontrastcoloureyealignmentandtheuseofbotheyesinacoordinatedmannerareallquiteadvanced.Theabilitytoseeasclearlyashealthyadultsdoappearstobethelastaspecttofullymatureandcontinuestohoneasthechildgrowsandisnormallycompletebytheageofabout8years.Doesyourtoddlerneedglasses2013Issue6ofKreolmagazinedealtwiththeimportanceofparentslookingoutforoutwardsignsofeyeproblemsinyoungchildrensomeofwhichincludeSittingtooclosetothetelevisionorholdingreadingmaterialtoocloseDifficultyidentifyingandorconfusingcoloursLookingcross-eyedorwalleyedExcessiveblinkingDifficultyfollowingobjectswithbotheyesTroublemovingoneorbotheyesinalldirectionsScrewingupeyestolookatsomethingOneorbotheyestendingtoturnoutorwanderEyesthatflutterquicklyfromsidetosideorupanddownBulgingeyesEyepainitchinessordiscomfortRednessineithereyethatdoesntgoawayinacoupleofdaysPusorcrustingineithereyeEyesthatarealwayswateryDroopingeyelidsExcessiveeyerubbingEyesthatarealwayssensitivetolightDifficultywitheye-hand-bodycoordination 99ISSUE7October-December2013kreolHealthBeautyOfcoursechildrenaremorelikelytohavevisualproblemsifeyeproblemsruninthefamilyoriftheyarebornprematurelyorwithalowbirthweight.New-bornswillnormallybecheckedbeforetheyleavehospitaltoensurethattheireyesappearnormalandareworkingproperlyaspartoftheirgeneralphysicalexamination.Thesewilloftenincludechecksforpropereyealignmentforproblemsontheoutsideoftheeyepupilreactionstochangesinlightandclarityofthedarkspaceandreflexwithinthepupilwithaspeciallightinstrumentophthalmoscope.Lateramedicaldoctororhealthvisitorsmayalsocarryoutsimilarchecks.Howeverthesechecksarelimitedandcantbeusedtodiagnoseaneyeorvisionproblembutareusedtoindicatethepotentialneedforfurthermoredetailedevaluationbyaneyecarepractitioner.Intheabsenceofanydiseaseorphysicalabnormalityoftheeyesatthisearlystagetheeyeswillcarryondevelopingnormallyandimprovetheirabilitytoseeclearerimagesinbotheyesasthechildgrows.Thisdevelopmentalprocessalthoughvariablesomewhatfromchildtochildgenerallyrunsverysmoothlyforthevastmajorityofchildren.Theendpointforthemisawell-developedabilitytoseeclearlybothinthedistanceandatnearwitheacheye.Howeverforsomethisgrowthprogresstothenormalend-pointmaynotproceedproperlyinoneorbothoftheeyes.Itisinthesechildrenthattheriskofvisualdifficultiesisincreasedandtheymaywellrequiresomeinterventiontopreventavoidablevisionloss.Identifiedearlyandtreatedsuchchildrenwillincreasetheirchancesofdevelopingnormalvision.GrowthtonormalAlthougheyescontinuedevelopingfrombirthuntiltheageofabout8yearstheprocessofgrowthtonormalislargelycompletedby2years.Itisthusreasonabletoconsideradetailedeyeexaminationatthisagecertainlybeforestartingschoolandrightawayifthechildshowsanyoftheoutwardsignsofeyeproblemsstatedpreviously.Itisnotnecessaryforpre-schoolchildrentoknowtheiralphabet.Thelevelofvisionduringaneyeexaminationcanbeestablishedeasilyforeacheyeusingspecialsymbolandpicturetesttypesspecialistophthalmicequipmentandtechniquesthatchildrenrespondwellto.ChildrenrarelycomplainabouttheirsightThemostimportantinformationduringthefirsteyeexamofachildiswhattheparentsgrandparentsrelativesortheteacherstelltheeyecarepractitionerabouttheirobservationsofthechildathomeatschooloratplay-becausechildrenrarelycomplainabouttheirsightThemostprevalenteyedisordersamongstchildreninthedevelopedworldincludeRefractiveerrors15-30Toseeclearlythelightenteringtheeyeballneedstobefocusedontotheretinathelightsensitivetissueinsidetheeye.Themajorityofrefractiveerrorsaretheresultofthefailureofthenormalgrowthprocessandareusuallyeasilycorrectablewithprescriptionspectaclesorcontactlenses.TheyfallintothreemajorcategoriesShort-sightednessMyopiaThisistheresultoftheeyeballanditslengthgrowingtobetoolarge.Lightenteringtheeyeballisfocusedinfrontoftheretinathusresultinginablurredimageperceivedbythebrain.Short-sightedpeoplecanusuallyseenearobjectssuchasbooksclearlybutfinddistanceobjectssuchasTVandschoolwritingboardsunclear.Long-sightednessHypermetropiaThisistheresultoftheeyeballanditslengthgrowingtobetooshort.Lightenteringtheeyeballisfocusedbehindtheretinaratherthanonitresultinginablurredimageperceivedbythebrain.Long-sightedpeoplecanusuallyseeclearlyinthedistancebutfindithardtoseeobjectsatnear.AstigmatismdistortedvisionThisistheresultoftheeyeballanditsshapegrowingtobemorelikeanovalrugbyballratherthanaroundfootball.Thisproducesacomplexpatternoflightontheretinaperceivedoftenasanimagemoreinfocusinonedirectionthananother.Itoftenleadstoconfusionofletterse.g.NandH.Ofcoursethegrowthofeacheyecanbedifferentandcanleadtoacombinationofrefractiveerrorsinoneorbotheyes.Thusitisnotunusualforchildrentobeshort-sightedandorlong-sightedandastigmaticaswell.Similarlyoneeyeballmayhaveagreaterorlesserprescriptionthantheother. ISSUE7October-December2013100Eyeturnssquints3-4andLazyeyesamblyopia2-3Asquintmeansthattheeyesarenotlinedup.Inmostcasesoneeyeappearstolookstraightaheadwhiletheothereyeturnsinwardsoutwardsupwardsordownwards.Althoughtherearemoreseriouscausesforsquintsmorecommonlytheyaretheresultofuncorrectedrefractiveerrorsoftengreaterinoneeyethantheother.Inthepresenceofasquintingeyethebrainwillreceivetwoimagesdoublevision-onefromeacheye.Tomanagethisinchildrenthebrainsuppressestheimagefromthedeviatingeye.Thisthenremovesthedoublevisionbutreducestheabilityofthesupressedeyetodevelopproperlyrelativetotheother.Thiscanleadtoanotherwisenormalbutdeviatingeyebecominglazyoramblyopic.Consequentlyachildwithasuspectedsquintshouldbeseenbyaneyecarepractitionerasearlyaspossibletoidentifythemostappropriatetreatment.ThistreatmentmayincludeoneormoreofthefollowingSpectaclesorcontactlensesmaybeprescribedtohelpkeeptheeyesstraightandortoimprovethevisionofbotheyes.Surgerymaybeconsideredtorealigneyesthatdonotorcannotberealignedproperlywithspectaclesorcontactlenses.Surgerymayalsobeappropriatetoimprovethecosmeticappearanceofanunsightlysquintthatcannotbecorrectedanyotherway.Treatmentforalazyeyeamblyopiamaybenecessarybestbeforetheageofeight.Thismayinvolvepatchingthegoodeyetoencouragedevelopmentofthelazyeyeandpossiblytheuseofspecialanti-suppressionexercises.UsingbotheyestogethercorrectlyInadditiontotheabovecommonproblemsencounteredamongstchildreninaclinicalsettingindevelopedcountriesincludeAninabilitytousethetwoeyestogetherinthecorrectwayanomaliesofbinocularvision.Thisistheresultofafailureofthecomplexsetofmusclestogetthetwoeyestoworkinthecorrectandco-ordinatedway.Aninabilitytofocusclearlyandcomfortablywhenreadingaccommodationdisorders.Thisistheresultofafailureofeyestoseeclearlyandcomfortablybothintothedistanceandatnearbyautomaticallychangingtheshapeofthelenswithintheeyewiththeinternalmusclesoftheeyetomaintainfocusasonemovesfixationfromfartonear.Binocularvisionandoraccommodationanomalieswillinterferewithperformanceatschoolandmaycauseanumberofsymptomsincludingeyestrainintermittentblurringordoublevisionlossofplaceskippedlinesandwordmovementonthepageapoorattentionspanwhenreadingandaninabilitytosustainreadingforanylengthoftime.Theseanomaliesifpresentwillbecomeapparentduringadetailedeyeexamination. 103ISSUE7October-December2013kreolHealthBeauty ISSUE7October-December20131041ThereisahugedierencebetweenvariousdyeformulationsFindingtherightdyeforyoudependsinpartonthereasonsbehindyourdecisiontodyeyourhair.Ifyouwanttocreatelong-lastingresultscoverupsomegrayhairsordramaticallychangeyourcolorfromdarktolightapermanentdyeistherightchoice.Howeverifyouhavethelessdemandinggoalofdarkeningyourcurrenthaircolororifyouarelookingtoblendyourrootswiththerestofyourhairshopforasemi-permanentdye.Finallyifyouarelookingtocautiouslydipyourtoeintotheworldofhairdyeingitisagoodideatostartwithatemporarydye.Thesedyestendtowashoutafteraroundsixoreightwashessotheyareasafebetifyouarestillattheexperimentingstageandhavenotdecidedonaparticularlook.Ifyouwanttosavemoneyitmakessensetodyeyourhairathomeratherthanpayingahugeamountofmoneyforatreatmentatasalon.Howeverifyouwanttoendupwithglossyvibrantlycoloredtressestherearecertainimportantfactsthatyouneedtokeepinmindinordertoavoiddisaster.Readontodiscoverseventhingsthatyouneedtoknowifyouwanttomakeyourhairdyelooklikeitwasappliedbyaprofessional. ISSUE7October-December20131068TIPSforaGoodNIGHTSSLEEPGettingagoodnightssleepisessentialtogoodhealthbrainpowerandevenadecentsexdrive. 107ISSUE7October-December2013kreolHealthBeauty ISSUE7October-December2013110BESTOFeCUISINEFoodisoneoflifessimplejoysandyetworldcuisinecanbebothcomplexandintriguing.ComingfromabackgroundoflivelymusicdeliciouslyhotweatherandoceanbluewatersCreolecuisinehasalltheelementstobeexactlywhatitisamouthwateringadventure.EnjoySpanishPortugueseFrenchandAfricanstylesofcookingandingredientsinfluencedandhelpedtocreatewhatisnowCreolecuisine.SpicytangyfreshandinspiredcoulddescribeatypicalCreoledishanditsnotnecessarytogoabroadtotrythisfantasticcuisine.ManyrestaurantsfeaturethisstyleofcookingalongsideCajundishes.CreoleandCajuncuisineareoftenconsideredoneandthesame.Intruththetwocouldbecalledcuisinecousins.TheCreolestyleisamorerefinedversionofitsCajuncousinthatisconsideredadownhomecookingstylecommoninmanyhouseholdsinSouthernLouisianawhileCreoleisthestyleofcookingonewillfindinbigcitiesandfinerestaurants.CreoleisalsomoreheavilyinfluencedbyFrenchstyleswhileCajunismoreinfluencedbyCaribbeanstylesofcooking.WithCreolebeingthecreamofthecroptherearesomedishesthatcantbemissedwhentakingaCreoleculinaryadventure.ThebestCreoledishesareculinarydreamscometrue.TrythesetastyCreoledreamstogetatruetasteofauthenticCreolecooking.GumboALouisianaspecialitythathasbeenpleasingpalettessincethe18thcentury.Thissoupcanbethinorthickandisflavouredbyastrongmeatorseafoodstock.Typicallyagumbocontainsshellfishandseasonalvegetablesparticularlytomatoes.GumboisseasonedwithsassafrasleavesorpowderandservedJambalaya ISSUE7October-November2013112Theavocadoisafoodthatisrisinginpopularityduetoitsrichdeliciousavoranditsversatilityinanumberofdierenttypesofcuisine.Itisalsobecomingastaplefoodoflow-carbdiets.Avocadosarealsooneofthehealthiestsuperfoodsthatyoushouldbeincludinginyourdiet.Letstakealookatwhyyoushouldbeeatingmoreavocados.WHYYOUSHOULDEATMOREAvocados